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PLATE I. Dodge-Shreves Doorway. Built in 1816. 









Copyright, 1912, 

All rights reserved 

8. J. I'ABKHILL & Co., BOSTON, U.8.A. 






THE wonderfully good collection of antiques for 
which Salem is noted was of great interest to me, 
being owned by personal friends who kindly con- 
sented to allow me for the first time to go through 
their homes and pick out the cream of their in- 
heritance. If the readers are half as interested in 
these objects as I have become, growing enthu- 
siastic in the work through the valuable pieces 
found, they will enjoy the pictures of colonial 
furnishings, many of which cannot be duplicated 
in any other collection of antiques. Family bits, 
wonderful old Lowestoft, and other treasures are 
included, all brought over in the holds of cumber- 
some ships, at the time when the commerce of 
Salem was at high tide. 

To Mr. Charles R. Waters, Mrs. Nathan C. 
Osgood, Mrs. Henry P. Benson, Mrs. William C. 
West, Mrs. Nathaniel B. Mansfield, Miss A. Grace 
Atkinson, Mrs. Walter C. Harris, Dr. Hardy 
Phippen, Mrs. McDonald White, and Mr. Horatio 
P. Peirson, as well as many others in my native city, 
I owe acknowledgment for their kindness in open- 
ing their houses and letting me in, as well as to 


Mrs. George Rogers of Danvers, Mrs. D. P. Page, 
Dr. Ernest H. Noyes, and Mrs. Charles H. Perry 
of Newburyport, Mrs. Walter J. Mitchell of Man- 
chester, Mrs. Prescott Bigelow and Mrs. William 
O. Kimball of Boston, Mrs. A. A. Lord of Newton, 
Mrs. Charles M. Stark of Dunbarton, N.H., and 
the late Mr. Daniel Low. 

The work was commenced at first through ill 
health and the desire for occupation, and has met 
with such good results through an interest in the 
story of antiques, that I have to-day one of the 
most valuable collections of photographs to be 
found in New England. 

AUGUST i, 1912. 
























I. Dodge-Shreves Doorway. Built in 1816 



II. The Warner House, Portsmouth, N. H. Built 

in 1718 8 

III. Middleton House, Bristol, R. I. Built about 

1808 9 

IV. Indian Hill Farm, West Newbury, Mass. Be- 

gun soon after 1650 12 

V. Andrew House Doorway, 1818 . . . 13 
VI. Gardner House Doorway, 1804 ... 22 
VII. Doorway of Nathan Robinson House, 1804 . 23 
VIII. Sixteenth Century Knocker, Lion type. Striker, 
of first type; Georgian Urn type, in use 
on modern houses ; Mexican Knocker of 
the Hammer type; Hammer type Knocker, 
Eighteenth Century, Charles P. Waters 

House 32 

IX. Eagle Knocker ; Eagle Knocker, Rogers House, 
Danvers, Mass. ; Medusa Head, elaborate 
early type; Garland type of Knocker . . 33 
X. Whittier Garden, Danvers, Mass. . . .46 
XI. Peabody Garden, Danvers, Mass. ... 47 
XII. Saltonstall Hallway, about 1800 ... 54 

XIII. Hallway, Lee House, 1800 .... 55 

XIV. Hallway, Tucker House, about 1800 . . 60 



XV. Hallway of Wentworth House, 1750 . 61 
XVI. Historic Fireplace at Ipswich, Mass. . . 64 
XVII. Old Fireplace in Wentworth House, Ports- 
mouth, N. H 65 

XVIII. First Hob Grate in New England, Waters 
House ; Mantel Glass and Fireplace, show- 
ing decoration of floral basket ... 70 
XIX. Middleton House Steeple Top Andirons, and 
Bellows ; Southern Andirons, Atkinson 

Collection 71 

XX. Cupid and Psyche paper, Safford House . 80 
XXI. Venetian paper in Wheelwright House, New- 

buryport 81 

XXII. Roman Ruins paper, Lee Mansion, Marble- 
head . . . . ' . . . .86 

XXIII. Adventures of Telemachus paper, Nymphs 

Swinging . . . . . . .87 

XXIV. Queen Anne Fiddle Back; Queen Anne, 

Stuffed Chair; Dutch Chair, carved; 
Empire Lyre-backed Roundabout, on 
Chippendale lines, 1825 .... 92 
XXV. Chippendale, Lord Timothy Dexter's Collec- 
tion, H. P. Benson ; French Chair, show- 
ing Empire influence; Flemish Chair; 
Banister-back Chair . . , . . 93 

XXVI. Chippendale Armchair, showing straight, 
square legs; Chippendale Chair; Chip- 
pendale, one of a set of six, showing 
Rosette design; Chippendale Armchair 
with Cabriole legs, Ball and Claw feet . 96 



XXVII. Empire Sofa ; Cornucopia Sofa ; Sofa in 

Adams style, about 1800 ... 97 

XXVIII. Sheraton, mahogany frame, about 1800; 
Sheraton, with solid arms, and straight, 
slender legs; Sheraton, about 1790. 
Note the graceful curve of the arms . 100 

XXIX. Sheraton, about 1800; Sofa, about 1820; 

Sofa, about 1820, with winged legs . 101 

XXX. Sheraton Night Table; Block Front Bu- 
reau Desk, owned by Dr. Ernest H. 
Noyes, Newburyport, Mass.; Cellarette, 
1790, owned originally by Robert Morris . 106 

Dressing Glass, with Petticoat legs ; Em- 
pire Bureau, 1816 


XXXII. Chest of Drawers, 1710; Six-legged High 



Chest of Drawers, about 1705 

Dressing Table, with brass feet; Bureau 
and Dressing Glass .... 

Block Front Bureau Desk, owned by 
Nathan C. Osgood. One of the best 
specimens in New England ; oak pan- 
eled Chest, about 1675 

Secretary, showing Shell ornamentation; 
Highboy with Shell ornamentation and 
Ball and Claw feet, 1760; Highboy with 
Shell ornamentation .... 

Dressing Table, 1760; Mahogany Com- 
mode, collection of Nathan C. Osgood . 















Sheraton Sideboard ; Simple form of Sher- 
aton Sideboard, with line Inlay around 
Drawers and Doors. Date, 1800 

Bedstead in Middleton House, 1798 

Sheraton type in Kittredge House ; Four- 
poster, about 1825 . . . . 

Field Bedstead, slept in by Lafayette, in 
Stark Mansion. Owned by Mrs. 
Charles Stark, Dunbarton, N. H. . 

1 20 


Sheraton Four-poster ; Four-poster show- 
ing decided English characteristics . '125 

Girandole in George Ropes House, 1800; 
Girandole, 1800; Constitution Mirror, 
1780 ....... 134 

Picture Mirror, showing Dawn, in Adams 
House, 1703 ; English Georgian Mirror, 
1750; Two-piece Looking Glass, 1750 135 

Oval Mirror, showing Acanthus Leaves. 
Once on Cleopatra's Barge. The first 
pleasure yacht built in America. Mir- 
ror, 1710, resting on ornamental knobs; 
Mirror, 1810, in Dudley L. Pickman 
House . . ... . 140 

Mirror, 1770; Lafayette Courting Mirror, 
Osgood Collection ; Empire Mirror, 1810 141 

Willard Banjo Clock, 1802 ; Banjo Clock, 
1804; Willard Banjo Clock, 1802 . 150 



XLVII. English Grandfather's Clock, William Dean 
Howells ; Collection of Old Clocks, prop- 
erty of Mr. Mills, Saugus, Mass. ; Grand- 
father's Clock, formerly owned by Presi- 
dent Franklin Pierce. Property of Mrs. 

Charles Stark 151 

XLVIII. General Stephen Abbot Clock; Terry Shelf 
Clock, 1824; English Clock, with Ball 

ornamentation 158 

XLIX. Whale Oil Lamps with Wicks; Mantel 
Lamps, 1815; Paul and Virginia Can- 
delabra 159 

L. Astral Lamps, 1778; English Brass Branch- 
ing Candlestick, showing Lions . .164 
LI. Colonial Mantel Lamp; Single Bedroom 
Brass Candlestick; Sheffield Plate Can- 
dlesticks 165 

LII. Pierced, or Paul Revere, Lantern; Old 
Hand Lantern ; English Silver Candle- 
stick; Brass Branching Candlestick, 

Chippendale, 1760 170 

LIII. Peacock Plate of Delft, very rare; Deco- 
rated Salt Glaze Plate, about 1780 . 171 
LIV. Liverpool Pitcher, showing Salem ship ; Old 
Chelsea Ware; Canton China Teapot; 
Wedgewood, with Rose decoration. 

Very rare 176 

LV. Gold Luster Pitcher; Staffordshire Pitcher, 
with Rose decoration ; Peacock Delft 
Pitcher; Jasper Ware Wedgewood 
Pitcher, Blue and White . . .177 



LVI. The Shepherd Toby. One of the rarest To- 
bies; English Toby, very old; very old 
Toby showing Cocked Hat . . .190 

LVII. Venetian and English Decanters; Toddy 
Glasses, about 1800; English Glass with 
Silver Coasters. Very old . . .191 
LVIII. Russian Glass Decanter and Tumblers. Note 

the exquisite cutting on this Decanter . 200 

LIX. English Cut Glass Decanter, about 1800; 
Typical Red Bohemian Glass Decanter; 
American Glass Bottle, Jenny Lind, about 

1850 . 201 

LX. Bohemian Glass. The center one is rare, 
showing figure of Peacock, in Red and 
White; English Cut Glass Wineglasses, 
1790; English Glass Decanters. Very fine 
and rare ....... 208 

LXI. Pewter half-pint, pint, and quart Measures. 
One hundred years old; Three unusual 
shaped Pewter Cream Jugs ; German Pew- 
ter, Whorl pattern 209 

LXII. Old Silver Coffee Urn with Pineapple finial ; 
Sheffield Plate Teapot, formerly owned by 
President Thomas Jefferson; Tall Silver 
Pitcher, of Flagon influence . . . 226 
LXIII. Several old silver pieces ; collection of Salem 
silver, almost all inherited ; wonderfully 
fine Silver Bowl with chasing . . . 227 





THERE is an indescribable charm surrounding 
colonial houses, especially if historic traditions are 
associated with them. Many of an early date 
of erection are still to be found throughout New 
England towns, where the Puritan and the Pilgrim 
first settled, and not a few have remained in the 
same families since their construction. Some are 
still in an excellent state of preservation, though 
the majority show weather-beaten exteriors, guilt- 
less of paint, with broken windows and sagging 
sills, speaking forcibly of a past prosperity, and 
mutely appealing through their forlornness for 

These are not, however, the first homes built 
by the colonists, and, indeed, it is doubtful if any 
examples of the earliest type are still standing. 


These were rude cabins built of logs, kept together 
by daubings of clay thrust into their chinks, and 
showing roofs finished with thatch. Great chim- 
neys were characteristic of all these cabins, built 
of stone, lengthened at the top with wood, and best 
known by the name Catted Chimneys. In the 
rude interiors of the old-time fireplaces hung soot- 
blackened cranes, while on cold, cheerless nights 
the blaze of logs on the hearths 

" Made the rude, bare, raftered room 
Burst, flowerlike, into rosy bloom." 

The next type was the frame house, built large 
or small according to the means of the owner, and 
constructed through the influence of Governor John 
Endicott, who sent to England for skilled workmen. 
Generally, these dwellings were two stories in 
height, the more pretentious ones showing peaks 
on either side to accommodate chambers, and their 
marked superiority over the first type soon re- 
sulted in their adoption throughout New England. 
In design they bore some resemblance to the 
Dutch architecture of the period, the outcome 
doubtless of many of the early settlers' long sojourn 
in Holland. Many of the frames were of white 
wood brought from the mother country in the in- 


coming ships, and the low ceilings invariably 
present were crossed with the heavy beams of the 
floors above, projecting through the timbers. 

The lean-to, characteristic of some houses of this 
type, did not come into vogue until about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, and its adoption 
is generally believed to have been for the use of the 
eldest son of the family, who, according to the 
law of England, would inherit the homestead, and 
until such inheritance, could remain, with his 
family, beneath the ancestral roof. 

The third type, the gambrel-roofed house, was at 
the height of its popularity about the time of the 
Revolutionary War, and continued in favor until 
the tide of commercial prosperity sweeping through 
the land brought in its wake the desire for more pre- 
tentious dwellings. Then came into fashion the 
large, square, wooden mansion, later followed by 
that of stately brick, excellent examples of both 
types being still extant. 

Like the Egyptian Isis who went forth to gather 
up the scattered fragments of her husband Osiris, 
fondly hoping that she might be able to bring back 
his former beauty, so we of to-day are endeavor- 
ing in New England to gather and bring into unison 
portions of the early homes, that we may even- 


tually restore them to their original charm and 
dignity. Outwardly these dwellings appear much 
as they did when built, more than a century ago, 
but inwardly sad changes have been wrought, 
leaving scarcely a trace of their old-time beauty. 
Yet beneath this devastation one versed in house 
lore can read many a tale of interest, for old houses, 
like old books, secrete between their covers many 
a story that is well worth while. 

Among the carefully preserved specimens, none 
of the earlier type is more interesting than the 
Pickering house at Salem, Massachusetts, built in 
1660, more than a hundred years before the Revo- 
lution. The land on which it stands is part of the 
twenty acres' grant which was a portion of Gov- 
ernor's Field, originally owned by Governor Endi- 
cott, and conveyed by him to Emanuel Downing, 
who, in order to pay for his son George's commence- 
ment dinner at Harvard, disposed of it to John 
Pickering, the builder of the home, in 1642. 

In design, the dwelling is Gothic, a popular type 
in the Elizabethan period, and closely resembles 
the Peacock Inn at Rouseley, England. The 
timbers used in its construction were taken from 
a near-by swamp, and when it was first built it 
showed on the northern side a sloping roof afford- 


ing but a single story at that end. In 1770, the 
then owner, Timothy Pickering, decided to raise 
this end to make room for three chambers, and the 
new portion was built to conform exactly with the 
old part, the windows equipped with the same 
quaint panes, set in leaded strips, which were finely 
grooved to receive the glass, on which the lead was 
pressed down and soldered together. It was found 
when the weatherboards were ripped off that the 
sills were sound, and it was decided to continue 
to use them, feeling they would last longer than 
those that could then be obtained. Two of the 
peaks found to be leaky were removed at this time, 
and they were not replaced until 1840, when Colonel 
Timothy Pickering's son, John, had reproductions 
set in place. The house has never been out of the 
Pickering family, and, with one exception, has 
descended to a John Pickering ever since its erec- 

Distinctly a New England landmark is the 
Colonel Jeremiah Page house at Danvers, Massa- 
chusetts, erected in the year 1750. It occupies a 
site that at the time of its construction was on the 
highway between Ipswich and Boston, now broad- 
ened at this point and known as Danvers Square. 
Originally, it consisted of four rooms, but these were 


later moved back and a new front added, the ell 
being replaced by a larger one. 

From a historic point of view, the roof is probably 
the most interesting feature of this old home, for here 
occurred the famous tea-party that Lucy Larcom 
has forever immortalized. During the troublous 
times of 1775, when all good patriots scorned the 
use of tea, Colonel Page demanded that it should 
not be drunk beneath his roof. Mistress Page had 
acceded to his request, but she did not promise that 
she would not drink it on his roof, so with a few 
friends she repaired one afternoon to the rail-en- 
closed roof, and here brewed and distributed the 
much liked beverage. The secret of the tea-party 
did not leak out until after her death, when one of 
the party, visiting at the house, asked to be taken to 
the roof, at the same time relating the, till then 
unknown, experience. 

Antedating the Page house some twenty-five 
years is the home of the Stearns family on Essex 
Street, Salem, erected by Joseph Sprague, a promi- 
nent old-time merchant, whose warehouse occupied 
the present site at the corner of North and Federal 
streets. This dwelling is of spacious dimensions, 
excellently proportioned, and it is especially inter- 
esting from the fact of its unusual interior arrange- 


ment, which provides on each floor for three rooms 
at the back and only two at the front. The origi- 
nal owner was captain of the first uniformed com- 
pany of militia organized in Salem, April 22, 1776, 
and he was also the first American to spill his blood 
in the Revolution, receiving a slight wound at the 
time of Leslie's retreat, while scuttling his gondola 
so it should not fall into the hands of the enemy. 

Another fine old home is the Cabot house, also 
in Salem. This dwelling, erected in 1745 by one 
Joseph Cabot, is considered by experts to be of the 
purest colonial type, and it has proved a subject of 
unusual interest to any number of artists and archi- 

No modern touch has been allowed to mar the 
old-time aspect of the Whipple house at Ipswich, 
Massachusetts, built in 1760, and which remains 
wholly unchanged from its original construction. 
It stands to-day almost alone in its picturesque 
antiquity, its huge central chimney, tiny window- 
panes, plain front door, guiltless of porch, with iron 
knocker, steep-pitched roof with lean-to at the 
back nearly sweeping the ground, all betokening 
its age. Little wonder it is the haunt of tourists, 
for it presents a picture in its old-time beauty that 
modern architecture can never duplicate. 


In the historic town of Marblehead, in Massa- 
chusetts, is one of the most interesting of old-time 
homes, the Colonel Jeremiah Lee mansion, built 
in 1768, and considered at the time of its erection 
the finest house in the Colonies. It was designed 
by an English architect at a cost of ten thousand 
pounds, and the timber and finish used in its con- 
struction were brought from England in one of the 
colonel's ships. It stands well to the front of the 
lot of which it forms a part, with scarcely any yard 
space separating it from the sidewalk, and it boasts 
a handsome porch supported by finely carved 
pillars, approached by a flight of steps. The broad 
entrance door, with its brass latch and old-time 
knob, swings easily upon its great hinges into a 
spacious hall that extends the length of the dwell- 
ing, affording access to the finely finished interior 

Equally as interesting as these old homes are 
several houses in New Hampshire, one of the most 
prominent being the Stark mansion at Dunbarton. 
This was built in 1785 by Major Caleb Stark of 
Revolutionary fame, and it is approached to-day 
through the original tree-lined avenue, a mile in 
length. In construction it is of the mansion type, 
two stories in height, with gambrel roof, twelve 

PLATE II. The Warner House, Portsmouth, N. H. Built in 1718. 


dormer windows, and a large, two-storied ell. Its 
entrance door is nearly three inches through, with 
handsome, hand-made panels, and it swings on 
wrought-iron hinges two feet either way. It is 
adorned with a knocker and latch that were brought 
from England by the major. Ever since its erec- 
tion, this house has been occupied by a member of 
the Stark family, and the present owner, Charles 
Morris Stark, boasts the distinction of being of 
Revolutionary stock on both sides of the family, his 
mother being a lineal descendant of Robert Morris, 
the great financier of the Revolution. 

Another interesting colonial home is the Warner 
house at Portsmouth, occupying a corner section 
on one of the city's main thoroughfares. This 
fine dwelling was erected by Captain Macpheadris, 
a wealthy merchant who came to this country 
from Scotland, and it is built of Dutch bricks 
that were imported from Holland, with walls 
eighteen inches thick. It stands firmly on its 
foundation, a magnificent specimen of early con- 
struction ; and its gambrel roof, Lutheran win- 
dows, quaint cupola, and broad simplicity of en- 
trance door, suggest the old-time hospitality that 
was so freely dispensed here. After the captain's 
death, the house came to his daughter, Mary, who 


had married Hon. Jonathan Warner, a member of 
the King's Council until the outbreak of the Revo- 
lution, and it is by his name that the fine old home 
is known. 

Two miles from Portsmouth, at Little Harbor, is 
the old home of Governor Benning Wentworth, 
built in 1750. In general, this dwelling is two sto- 
ries in height, with wings that form three sides of a 
hollow square, though it boasts no particular style 
of architecture, appearing to be rather a group of 
buildings added to the main structure from time to 
time. It is screened from the roadway by great 
trees, and on the north and east faces the water. 
Originally it had fifty-two rooms, but some of these 
have been combined, so to-day there are but forty- 
five. The cellar is particularly large, and here in 
times of danger the governor hid his horses. After 
the governor's death, his widow married John 
Wentworth, and it was during the occupancy of 
Sir John and his wife that Washington was enter- 
tained here. 

Typical of the wooden mansion type, that suc- 
ceeded in favor the gambrel-roofed dwellings, is the 
house now known as the Endicott house, at Danvers, 
Massachusetts. This building, constructed about 
1800, was purchased about 1812 by Captain Joseph 


Peabody, a Salem merchant, and grandfather of 
the present owner, as a place of refuge for himself 
and family during the embargo. In design, it 
is most imposing, and the front now shows a wide 
veranda, with the entrance dignified by a porte- 
cochere, supported by high columns, between each 
two of which a great bay tree is set. Sweeps of 
smooth lawn afford an attractive setting, and great 
trees, here and there, bestow protecting shade. 
The dwelling is surrounded by beautiful gardens, 
the most interesting from a historic point of view 
being the old-fashioned posy plot laid out at the 
time of the erection of the house. 

Not unlike in type to this fine home is "Hey 
Bonnie Hall" in Rhode Island, the residence of the 
Misses Middleton. Built in 1808, it stands to-day 
in all its original beauty, the pure white of its ex- 
terior admirably set off by the great green sweeps 
of sward, dotted with fine trees, that surround it on 
all sides. It was erected from plans of Russell 
Warren, who designed the White House at Washing- 
ton, and it is renowned not only for its beautiful 
colonial architecture, but also for the wonderful 
collection of old-time furniture and objects of art 
that it contains. 

In type, it is very similar to a Maryland manor, 


with projecting wings, the service portion in a 
separate building connected with the main house 
by a covered passage, after the Southern fashion. 
In this passage is the well room, so called from the 
fact that a well of pure spring water is located 
here. In length the house is one hundred and 
forty feet, its front just enough broken to avoid 
monotony, and its spaciousness affording an air 
of comfort. Two Corinthian columns, as high as 
the house itself, support the roof over the entrance 
porch, and on either side are well-protected veran- 
das, overlooking beds of old-fashioned flowers and 
smooth stretches of sward. In front lies the har- 
bor, and beyond is the picturesque town of Bristol, 
affording a most pleasing prospect. 

Unlike these latter-day types, in fact unlike 
any set design, is the low, rambling house at West 
Newbury, Massachusetts, known as Indian Hill, 
and so called from the location that it occupies. 
In appearance, this dwelling is most picturesque, 
resembling in design a castle, and it is as historic as 
it is interesting. The site that it occupies is the last 
reservation of the Indians in the neighborhood, the 
land having been sold by Old Tom, the Indian 
chieftain, to the town, and the deed of the sale being 
still preserved by the present owners. 

PLATE V. Andrew House Doorway, 1818. 


Viewed from any angle, the house presents a 
series of pictures, each equally as interesting as 
the other, and its irregular roof lines, gables and 
bays, quaint, diamond-paned windows, and chim- 
neys adorned with chimney pots, are further em- 
bellished by the flowering vines of a rambler rose, 
perhaps the finest in the country. While the 
house can be seen from the road, it is only when 
one drives under the archway into the courtyard, 
bounded on three sides by barn, stables, and house, 
that he can realize its true worth. 

Salem, fortunate in specimens of early con- 
struction, is also fortunate in examples of latter- 
day types, and here are to be found several of the 
fine brick dwellings, built at the time of her great- 
est commercial prosperity. One of these is the 
Andrews house, located on Washington Square, 
and one of the three dwellings erected in 1818. Its 
brick exterior gives no hint of its age other than 
the softening dignity that time bequeaths, and it 
stands to-day, tall and broad, its gray-faced bricks 
brightened by white trimmings, and its beauty em- 
phasized by a fine circular porch supported by white ' 
columns, topped with a high balustrade. At one 
side is a charming old-fashioned garden, laid out in 
prim, box-bordered beds, and all about its fence 


inclosure flowering vines clamber. Complete, the 
dwelling cost forty thousand dollars, a large sum 
for the time of its erection. 

Every brick used in its construction was first 
dipped into boiling oil to render it impervious to 
moisture, and all the framework is of timbers sea- 
soned by long exposure to the sun and rain. On one 
brick is cut the date of erection, the work of the 
master builder under whose supervision the dwell- 
ing was erected. The great pillars of the side porch, 
overlooking the garden, are packed, so the story 
goes, with rock salt not an uncommon process 
at that time to keep out dampness and to save 
the wood from being eaten by worms. 

Some years previous to the erection of this 
dwelling, Mr. Nathan Robinson had constructed 
on Chestnut Street a brick dwelling, considered by 
connoisseurs to be one of the finest specimens 
to-day extant. The porch, at the front, is wonder- 
fully fine, and has attracted the attention of any 
number of students and architects, who have made 
a careful study of it. 

And so we might go on and on, singling out 
particularly good specimens here and there, but 
when all is said and done, it is undeniable that all 
old houses afford interesting study. Architects of 


the present are coming to appreciate their worth, 
and into many modern homes features of early 
construction are being incorporated. Naturally, 
to the antiquarian, nothing can ever take the place 
of these bygone specimens, and as he paces the 
main thoroughfares of historic cities, now lined with 
stores, he sees in fancy the stately homes with their 
fragrant garden plots, which modern demand has 
superseded. Pausing on the curbing near the old 
State House in Boston, what an array of bygone 
dwellings in fancy can be conjured, and how many 
of the old-time dignitaries can be recalled. So vivid 
is the picture that one might almost expect to see 
old Thomas Leverett saunter by, or perchance hear 
the rattle of wheels as the carriage of Dr. Elisha 
Cook lumbered on its way. It is a pleasant pic- 
ture to contemplate, and the lover of the old 
breathes a sigh of regret at the passing of such pic- 



No type of architecture to-day holds such a 
distinctive place in the minds of architects and home 
builders as does that of the colonial period. This 
is especially true concerning the porch or doorway, 
for this feature, affording as it does entrance to 
the home, called for most careful thought, that it 
might be made harmonious and artistic, and expres- 
sive of the sentiment which it embodies. The 
straight lines and ample dimensions which char- 
acterized it required skill to arrange properly, 
and, considering the limitations of the period in 
which it was constructed, the results obtained were 

These porches and doorways were designed at a 
time when our country was young, and the builders 
were not finished architects like the designers of 
to-day ; but they were planned and built by men 
who were masters in their line, and who taxed their 
skill to the utmost that results might be artis- 
tic and varied, individualizing each home so that 


the entrance porch should express both hospital- 
ity and refinement. 

In the holds of the cumbersome ships that plied 
between the new country and the motherland were 
placed as cargoes, pillars, columns, and bits of 
shaped wood, all to be used in the construction of 
the new home, and incidentally in the porch. It 
was no easy task to devise from these fragments a 
complete and artistic whole, and to the ingenuity 
of the builders great credit is due. 

In contour and construction, these porches differ 
greatly. Those found in New England depict 
a stateliness that savors of Puritanical influence, 
while those in the South convey, through their 
breadth, an impression of the cordiality which 
is characteristic of that section. Some are semi- 
circular, others square ; a few are oblong, and some 
are three-cornered, fitting into two sides of the 
entrance, and in each case giving to the dwelling 
a congruous appearance that is refreshing to con- 
template in an age like ours, when so many differ- 
ent periods are combined in a finished whole. 

All these porches show a harmony of form and 
proportion that gives just the right effect, and many 
are embellished by wonderful wood carving. The 
Grecian column, in its many forms, lends itself 
[17] ' 


in a great degree to artistic effects, often bestowing 
an originality of finish that is most pleasing, and 
one that differs in every respect from the modern 
broad veranda, and the stately porte-cochere. 

The art of hand carving reached its highest state 
of perfection about the year 1811, during which 
period the best types of porches were erected. 
The results are shown not only in the capitals of 
the columns and on the architrave, but on the 
pediments and over the entrance door as well. 
A good example of the decoration of the architrave 
is seen on the old Assembly House on Federal 
Street, in Salem, Massachusetts, where the carving 
takes the form of a grapevine, with bunches of 
the hanging fruit, and also over the door of the 
Kimball house, in the same city, where Samuel 
Mclntyre, one of the most noted wood carvers, 

It can be well and correctly said that the colonial 
porch embodied not only the characteristics of 
the period in which it was built, but the personality 
of the owner as well. Should the unobservant 
person feel that this statement is far-fetched, let 
him take a stroll through some tree-shaded street 
of an old New England village, and the truth of the 
assertion is readily revealed. Though the house 


itself may be old and battered, and fast falling 
into decay, yet the porch greets one with a simple 
welcome that breathes of former hospitality, and, 
in admiration of this feature, the shabbiness of the 
rest of the exterior sinks into oblivion. 

Broadly speaking, porches are divided into 
three types or classes. The first belong to the 
period beginning with the year 1745 and continuing 
until the year 1785, a space of time marked by 
stirring events, culminating in the Revolutionary 
War, and the birth of the new republic. Houses 
of this period are of the gambrel-roofed type. 
The second class adorn the succeeding type of 
dwelling, the large, square, colonial house, built 
by the merchant prince, whose ships circumnavi- 
gated the globe, and who filled his home with for- 
eign treasures ; while the third type is that which 
ornamented the brick mansion which came into 
vogue about 1818. As many of these were erected 
during the commercial period, they cannot, strictly 
speaking, be called colonial; they belong rather 
to the Washingtonian time, and reflect in their 
construction the gracious hospitality of that day. 

Porches of varied colonial types are found in 
most of the New England cities and towns, in the 
Middle States, and in the South, and particularly 


fine examples can be seen in Salem, Massachusetts. 
There is about all of these a dignity and refinement 
that is unmistakable, bespeaking a culture that is 
felt at once, and a stranger wandering through 
Salem's streets cannot help but be impressed with 
the fact. 

Adorning the three-storied houses with their flat 
roofs, they give an artistic touch to what would 
otherwise be plain exteriors. From step to knocker, 
from leaded glass to the arched or square roof of 
the doorway, there is a plainness and simplicity 
which betokens art, but of such a quiet, unpreten- 
tious type that by the untrained eye it is hardly 
appreciated, though to the architect it brings 
inspiration and affords study for classic detail, 
the result of which is shown in the modified colonial 
homes of to-day. 

Romance and history are strangely intermingled 
in these old-time porches and doorways. Under 
their stately portals has passed many a colonial 
lover, doffing his cocked hat to his lady fair, who, 
with silken gown, powdered hair and patches, sat 
at the window awaiting his coming. Those were 
Salem's halcyon days, when the tide of life ebbed 
and flowed in uneventful harmony, free from the 
disturbing elements of latter-day life. 


To attempt even a brief description of each and 
every doorway would be a herculean task. Rather, 
it is better to depict the different types, studying 
with critical eye the various examples. One is 
the semicircular entrance, with its rounded front, 
a type shown in many a New England home. 
The Andrews porch, numbered among the finest 
in the city, belongs to this class. Under this 
doorway passed the late war governor, John 
Andrew, during visits to his uncle, John Andrew, 
builder of the dwelling, that he always coveted 
for his own. The dwelling was one of three 
built in 1818 on three sides of a training field, 
which is now the Common. The fine elm trees 
that characterize the Common were planted in 
the same year. The other two houses were the 
John Forrester dwelling and the Nathaniel Silsbee 
house. The Andrew porch shows straight columns, 
and a roof topped with a balustrade ; the simplicity 
of outline renders it most attractive. 

Another porch of the same type is that of the 
John Gardiner house on Essex Street, built in 
1804. Here is an entrance considered by good 
judges of architecture to be one of the best examples 
of its type, characterized by perfect symmetry of 
outline. Numbered among its features are quaint 



indentations in the door head. This dwelling was 
formerly the home of Captain Joseph White, 
one of the worthy and noted Salem merchants. 
Other porches of similar contour, though differently 
ornamented, are to be found on Chestnut Street. 

It is only when one carefully studies doorways such 
as these, contrasting them with latter-day porches, 
which are often little more than holes in the wall, 
fitted with a cheap framing and entirely out of 
keeping with the exterior, that their worth is viewed 
in the true light, and the opportunity to turn to 
the old-time types for inspiration is appreciated. 

Perhaps the most Puritanical of all the doorways 
are the simple narrow ones that generally stand at 
one side of the house, although sometimes they 
are used as the main entrance. These show either 
fluted side pilasters, or severely plain columns, 
surmounted by a pediment. The door is always 
dark in coloring, trimmed with a polished brass 
knocker and often with a brass latch. 

One of the most elaborate of these is that of the 
dwelling known as the Cabot house on Essex Street. 
This house was designed in 1745 by an English 
architect for Joseph Choate, and later came into the 
possession of Joseph Cabot. 

Another notable entrance is that of the Lord 

PLATE VI. Gardner House Doorway, 1804. 

PLATE VII. Nathan Robinson House Doorway, 1804. 


house on Washington Square. This is a side 
entrance, and is said to be one of the finest of its 
type in Salem. This house was at one time 
occupied by Stephen White, a man of worth, who 
was falsely accused of the murder of his uncle, 
and who engaged as counsel Daniel Webster. 
While this case was in progress, Webster brought 
his son, Fletcher, to the White home, where he 
met and fell in love with the daughter of the 
house, later making her his bride. Thus were ro- 
mance and law strangely intermingled ! The 
house was afterwards the home of Nathaniel Lord, 
one of the most brilliant jurists of his time. 

The inclosed porch is another phase of old Salem 
doorways. There are several interesting examples 
of this type still to be seen here, perhaps the most 
noted being the one on Charter Street, on a three- 
story, wooden building, about a century and a 
half old, low of stud, with square front, standing 
directly on a shabby little by-street, and cornered 
in a graveyard. This porch, inclosing the entrance 
door, is lighted by small, oval windows, one on 
either side, affording glimpses up and down the 
street. It has been graphically described by a 
silent, dark-browed man, who, with two women, 
came to the dwelling in the dusk of an evening 


in 1838, and, lifting the old-time knocker, an- 
nounced his arrival. The door was opened by 
Elizabeth Peabody, who graciously admitted Na- 
thaniel Hawthorne and his sisters, showed them 
into the parlor, and then ran up-stairs to tell her 
sister Sophia of the handsome young man hand- 
somer than Lord Byron who had just arrived. 
As the door closed behind him that evening, 
Hawthorne shut out forever the dreary solitude 
of his life, and we read that he came again and 
again to the, old home, where he played the prin- 
cipal part in one of the most idyllic of courtships, 
ending in his marriage two years later with the 
fair Sophia. This dwelling he made the scene of 
Dr. Grimshawis Secret, and the old porch has 
taken on a dignity and historic interest that will 
live forever. 

But perhaps one loves to dwell longest on the 
doorway of the Assembly House on Federal 
Street, for it is full of vivid memories. It is an 
oddly shaped porch, beautifully carved, and under 
its portals the daughters of Salem's merchant 
princes passed, holding in their slender hands the 
skirts of their silken gowns, as they gayly mounted 
the broad stone steps. On the evening of October 
29, 1784, Lafayette was entertained in this old 


home, and five years later, Washington, who had 
just been inaugurated as the first President of the 
United States, came here. Concerning his visit, 
he wrote in his diary : "Between 7 and 8 I went to 
an Assembly, where there were at least a hundred 
handsome young ladies." With one of these, 
the daughter of General Abbot, Washington opened 
the ball, and for her later, as he did not dance, he 
secured as a partner General Knox. 

Other types of porches still seen in Salem include 
the Dutch porch, quaint and comely in its con- 
struction, an excellent example of which is seen 
on the Whipple house on Andover Street, while 
surrounding the Common on Washington Square 
are many rare and picturesque porches of various 
dates of erection. 

Considered by experts to excel them all is the 
porch that adorns the Pierce-Jahonnot house on 
Federal Street. This dwelling was erected by Mr. 
Pierce, of Pierce and Waitte, merchants, in the year 
1782, and beside the main entrance it boasts a 
fine example of the narrow doorway at one side. 
In the early spring, crocuses clustering about the 
base of the porch add a touch that is decorative 
and charming, and the box-bordered garden beds, 
just in front, filled with masses of pure white 



bloom, complete a wholly delightful setting. 
There is about this particular doorway a touch of 
sentiment felt by every Salemite. It is a piece 
of architecture of which any one might feel proud, 
and in its beauty and dignity it stands distinctive 
in the midst of many fine bits. It is the Mecca 
of architects, who delight in the exquisite blend- 
ing of doorway and entrance. 

There is a touch of the old Witchcraft Days con- 
nected with a doorway at Number 23 Summer 
Street, that resembles in type the one immortalized 
by Hawthorne. More than two hundred years 
ago, this porch was the site of an event that 
culminated in tragedy. Bridget Bishop, the first 
victim of the terrible delusion of 1692, kept a 
tavern here, and in her gay light-heartedness, she 
scorned the dictates of the church and insisted 
upon wearing on Sabbath Day a black hat and a 
red paragon bodice, bordered and looped with dif- 
ferent colors. Her boldness in defying the rigid 
doctrines made the dignitaries suspicious of her, 
and at her trial, when one witness told of meeting 
her before the site of the present doorway where 
his horse stopped, and the buggy he was driving 
flew to pieces, she of course having bewitched 
it, was condemned to death. 


Individual types found throughout the city 
show a variety of construction and ornamenta- 
tion, and many of these are most unique, although 
they do not belong to any special period. Promi- 
nent among these is the Pineapple doorway on Brown 
Street Court, an excellently proportioned and finely 
adorned entrance, which, through the remoteness 
of its location, is rarely seen by tourists. The 
dwelling of which it is a part was built in 1750 
by Captain Thomas Poynton, and this feature, 
unlike the old Benjamin Pickman porch on Essex 
Street, which shows a codfish, has nothing about 
it suggestive of New England. The pineapple, 
which is set in a broken pediment, was brought 
over from England in one of the captain's own 
ships, and in the days of his occupancy it was kept 
brightly gilded, its leaves painted green. 

Many of the doorways show an innovation in 
the presence of the climbing vine, which winds its 
tendrils about the pillar supports, emphasizing 
their beauty. It is not definitely known whether 
the early owners encouraged the vine-covered 
porch or not, but they probably did, as they 
delighted in the vine-covered summer-house, which 
was a feature of nearly every old-time garden. 

While Salem may hold a prominent rank in 


attractive porches, many fine examples are to be 
found in Philadelphia, and though these specimens 
differ radically in design, they are most attractive. 
One is to be seen on Independence Hall on Chestnut 
Street, while others are found on churches and 

These doorways illustrate a phase of architectural 
construction totally different from the porches of 
New England and those of the South, yet they com- 
bine features of the other types, while at the same 
time displaying a certain definite style of their own 
which gives to them as great distinctiveness as char- 
acterizes Salem porches. 

If the twentieth-century architect desires studies 
of truly attractive doorways, the seaport towns of 
New England will afford him excellent models. 
There is enough variety here in porches which are 
still preserved to give him any number of models 
from which to devise an entrance that will serve its 
purpose in every sense of the word. 

For the home builder, it will not be amiss to 
carefully consider the best type of porch before he 
goes to the architect to develop his plans ; he can 
be assured that study will develop ideas that will 
give to his home an individuality that will em- 
body his ideas and personality. 



THERE is no more decorative feature of the 
entrance door than the old-time door knocker, es- 
pecially if in conjunction with it are used a latch 
and hinge. It possesses a dignity and charm that 
is most attractive, and when shown in brass, 
brightly burnished, it forms a most effective foil 
for the dark or polished surface of the wood. 

Door knockers have been in use, save for short 
periods during the seventeenth and nineteenth 
centuries, since their invention, early in the world's 
history, although they were most freely used during 
the Romanesque, the Gothic, and the Renaissance 
periods. For easy identification they may be di- 
vided into three classes, the first characterized by 
a ring, the second by a hammer, and the third by 
human figures and animals' heads. The first two 
types show a much larger surface of plate than the 
third, and the designs employed are often most 

Door knockers in use during the Medieval 


period were perhaps the most carefully designed, 
while those of the Renaissance period showed 
the most fanciful treatment. It must be remem- 
bered, when considering the ornamental qualities 
of both these types of knockers, and comparing 
them with latter-day productions, that they were 
made at a time when designers were practically 
unknown, artists being employed to draw patterns 
which were worked out by assistants under the 
supervision of master smiths, which method re- 
sulted in a greater diversity of treatment. 

Iron was at first used in the construction of 
knockers, partly on account of its inexpensiveness, 
and the results secured from this seemingly ugly 
material were both artistic and beautiful. Later, 
brass came into favor for the purpose, and it has 
since remained the principal knocker material, 
as no better substitute has been found. Brightly 
polished, a brass knocker undeniably adds to the 
decorative attractiveness of any door. 

During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 
knockers were used on all classes of houses. These 
for the most part were very elaborate in design, 
showing a wonderful delicacy of workmanship, 
and they were in many instances larger than those 
found on modern colonial homes. 


Except for the period during the seventeenth 
century, as above mentioned, door knockers re- 
mained in favor until the middle of the nineteenth 
century, when a wave of modernity, sweeping the 
length and breadth of the land, brought in its wake 
an overthrow of colonial ideas and furnishings. 
Modern doors, plain of surface, replaced the finely 
paneled old-time ones, and with their coming 
disappeared the knocker and the latch. Probably 
the principal cause of this was the demolition of 
many of the old landmarks, and the substitution 
of dwellings of an entirely different architectural 
type. This innovation for a second time con- 
signed the knocker to oblivion, and many there were 
who, not realizing its artistic value, cast it into the 
scrap heap. Others, with a veneration for heir- 
looms, packed the knockers away in old hair trunks 
under the eaves of the spacious attic, together 
with other antiques of varying character. 

No doubt the greatest number were saved by the 
wise and far-sighted collector, who, realizing the 
artistic beauty of the knocker, felt that it would in 
time come to its own again. Quietly he purchased 
them and stored them away, awaiting the day of 
their revival, and his foresight was amply repaid 
when the modified colonial house came into vogue, 


demanding that the knocker should again be the 
doorway's chief feature. Many of those now 
shown are genuine antiques, while others are re- 
productions, but so carefully copied that only to 
one who has made a study of antiques is the differ- 
ence discernible. 

Old door knockers vary as to size according to the 
date of their construction. Many are of odd 
design, having been made to fit doors of unusual 
shapes, and the ornamentation is as varied as the 
shapes. The most elaborate knockers depict such 
ideas as Medusa's head, Garlands of Roses, and, 
in many cases, animals' heads, while the simple 
ones show oval or plain shapes, with border 
decorated with bead or fretwork. 

The shape of the knocker is of great assistance in 
classification, as is the metal used. The most 
common type has the striker round or stirrup- 
shaped. This is either plain or ornamented with 
twisted forms, with wreathing or masks, and the 
plate is formed of a rosette or lion's head. 

In the second type, the striker is hammer-shaped, 
the handle often showing a split and straplike 
formation, while the plate and knob are plain. 
This is an early type, as is shown from the fact 
that specimens still exist that are not unlike Byzan- 


PLATE VIII. i6th Century Knocker, Lion type, Striker of 
first type ; Georgian Urn type, in use on modern house ; 
Mexican Knocker of the Hammer type ; Hammer type 
Knocker, i8th Century, Charles P. Waters House. 

PLATE IX. Eagle Knocker; Eagle Knocker, Rogers House, 
Danvers, Mass.; Medusa head, elaborate early type; 
Garland type of Knocker. 


tine and Saracenic forms. It is to this type that 
the exquisite iron-chiseled knockers of Henry II 
and Louis XIV belong. 

The lyre or elongated loop drawn down to form 
the striker constitute the third style. Masks, 
snakes, dragons, and human figures belong to this 
class, and, on account of the elaborate workman- 
ship employed, these are often found in brass and 
bronze. This type shows ornamentation lavished 
on the striker, while the plate is very plain. 

The greatest difference noted in all these classes 
is that in the third type the escutcheon or plate 
by which the knocker is fastened to the door is 
of little importance, while in the first two types 
it is the leading motive. 

During the Gothic period, the design was dia- 
mond-shape, richly decorated with pierced work, 
and while this same motif was retained in the 
making of the Renaissance knocker, it was fre- 
quently varied by the double-headed or some 
similar style. 

What is correct concerning the design of the Medi- 
eval knocker holds good in that of to-day. No door 
knocker ever designed was ugly, even at the time of 
the earliest manufacture, when so little was known 
concerning architectural construction. There is a 


fine individuality in the style of all knockers, 
and singularly enough one fails to find duplicates 
of even the most admirable specimens. Another 
fact that seems strange is that reproductions often 
sell for as much as genuine antiques. It would 
seem that the price of the old knocker would be 
high, on account of its historical value, and 
yet this type of knockers sells at a lower price 
than present-day specimens. Old brass examples 
can be purchased as low as two dollars and fifty 
cents, while large and elaborate ones bring only 
ten dollars. This is not on account of their true 
value not being known, but because there is, as yet, 
comparatively little demand for them ; and their sale 
at the best is limited, for where a person could use 
twenty candlesticks, two knockers would suffice 
for door ornamentation. 

There is an important phase of the copied speci- 
mens that must be taken into consideration, and 
that is that they have no historic value. This 
fact has made reproductions of no appeal to 
either the collector or the antiquarian, unless 
there is some special interest in the model from 
which they have been copied. 

Whether a knocker is a reproduction or a genuine 
antique can often be told by examining the plate 


and noting if it is forged to the ring or flat plate. 
If so, it is a fine piece of workmanship and a genuine 
antique ; otherwise, it is spurious. 

The best place to purchase genuine old knockers 
is in the curio shops, where only such things are 
for sale. Even in this event, it is well to know 
the earmarks, for if one is anxious for a real antique, 
he should be posted on the characteristics, as a 
spurious specimen is apt to find its way even 

The door knockers in general use to-day are the 
Georgian urn or vase, the thumb latch, and the 
eagle. Such designs as Medusa's head, and the 
head of Daphne with its wreath of laurel leaves 
are also sometimes found. 

The lion with ring has always been more popular 
in England than in our country, and, indeed, 
during the Revolutionary War and for fifty years 
after, it was not even tolerated here, being super- 
seded by the eagle, which came into vogue about 


The garland knocker, which belongs to the early 
type, is still sometimes found to-day. One such 
specimen is shown on a modern colonial home at 
Wayland, Massachusetts. This originally graced 
the doorway of one of Salem's merchant prince's 



homes, but it was purchased by a dealer in antiques 
at the time of the decline in favor of the knocker, 
later finding its original resting place, from which 
it has only recently been removed. 

Another rare and unusual knocker is shown on 
a house on Lynde Street, Salem, Massachusetts. 
This is of Mexican type, and has been on the house 
since its erection. It was painted over some years 
ago by an owner who cared little for its worth, and 
it was not until a comparatively short time ago 
that it was discovered to be a fine example of a 
rare type. 

The horseshoe knocker, a specimen of the hammer 
class, is a prized relic of many old homes. Like 
all true colonial specimens, it is made of wrought 
iron, painfully hammered by hand upon the forge 
in the absence of machinery for working iron, as 
even nails had to be hammered out in those early 
times. This is one of the quaintest and most 
original knockers, and is after the pattern of 
the earliest designed. Subsequent specimens were 
more elaborate, colonial craftsmen bestowing upon 
them their greatest skill. Among the most ornate 
were the purely Greek or Georgian vases or urns, 
eagles in all possible and impossible positions, heads 
of Medusa, Ariadne, and other mythological ladies, 


and Italian Renaissance subjects, such as nymphs, 
mermaids, and dolphins, with ribbons, garlands, 
and streamers. 

Not a few of these knockers have wonderfully 
interesting histories. Scenes have been enacted 
about them, which, could they be but known, would 
make thrilling tales. Take, for instance, the 
knocker on the Craigie House at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. How many men of letters from all 
over the world have lifted the knocker to gain 
admittance to our late loved poet's home, and 
think what stories such visits could furnish ! 

On the Whittier homestead at Amesbury, Massa- 
chusetts, is still to be seen the knocker which was on 
the door during the poet's life. This is of eagle de- 
sign, probably chosen on account of its patriotic 
significance. Another interesting knocker formerly 
graced the house wherein the "Duchess" lived, on 
Turner Street, in Salem, many times lifted by 
Hawthorne, who was a frequent visitor to this 
dwelling, and who forever immortalized it in his 
famous romance, The House of Seven Gables. 
This is now replaced by another of different design. 

Considered to be one of the oldest knockers in 
this section is that on the door of the May house 
at Newton, Massachusetts. Be that as it may, it is 


certainly unique. The plate shows a phoenix ris- 
ing from the plain brass surface, while the knocker 
has for ornamentation a Medieval head. This 
knocker has attracted the attention of antiquarians 
throughout the country, who have given it much 
study in attempts to find out the period in which 
it was made. 

Thumb latches are not so common as the ham- 
mer and ring class. Two of these specially unique 
show wonderful cutting. One is found on the front 
door of the Waters house on Washington Square, 
Salem, being brought from the John Crowninshield 
dwelling, while the other is seen on the side porch 
of this same residence, having been placed there at 
the time of the building's erection in 1795. 

England is the seat of most of the old-time 
knockers, although they are still found in almost 
every part of the globe. Threading the narrow by- 
streets of London, one finds many historic specimens 
replaced by simple modern affairs. Some have be- 
come the prey of avaricious tourists, while others, 
because of their owners' little regard for their 
value, have been relegated to ash heaps and thrown 

This is true of the knocker made famous by 
Dickens in the Christmas Carol. On the polished 


surface of this, Scrooge was said to have thought 
he saw reflected the face of Marley "like a bad 
lobster in a dark cellar." Later he spoke of it as 
follows : " I shall love it as long as I live. I scarcely 
ever looked at it before. What an honest expres- 
sion it has in its face. It is a wonderful knocker." 

Clasped hands holding a ring of laurel is the 
form of the knocker still seen on the door of the 
famous Dr. Johnson house, and, as one gazes at it, 
he can in fancy see David Garrick and Sir Joshua 
Reynolds ascending the steps, and if he pauses a 
moment longer he can no doubt even hear the 
metallic ring of the knocker, as it responds to the 
vigorous raps that they give. 

The most beautiful knocker left in London is 
the one shown on the outer gate of the Duke of 
Devonshire's house at Piccadilly. The design here, 
as unique as it is beautiful, shows an angelic head 
with flowing hair. 

Chapels and cathedrals in England have many 
examples of this type of door decoration, one 
being a knocker handle with pierced tracery seen 
on Stogumber Church in Somerset. 

The history of door knockers is practically 
unwritten, and little is known concerning their 
make. The revival of antiques is responsible for 


their present popularity, and gives them an im- 
portance in house ornamentation little dreamed 
of a few years ago. To be sure, the coming of 
electric bells has precluded their necessity, but, on 
account of their ornamental value, it is doubtful 
if they ever become obsolete. The variety of 
design, the many artistic shapes to which they 
can be adapted, and, more than all, their decorative 
qualities, make them particularly valuable. 




THERE was a restful charm and dignity surround- 
ing the garden of olden times that is lacking in the 
formal ones of to-day. This effect was gained 
partly from the prim box borders and the straight, 
central path, and partly from the stateliness of 
the old-fashioned flowers. Gardens formed a 
distinctive feature in the colonists' home grounds, 
from the time of their landing on unknown soil. 
At first they were very small, and consisted mostly 
of wild flowers and plants that had been brought 
from their homes in England and Holland. The 
early settlers brought with them to this new land a 
deep love for floriculture, and the earliest garden 
plots filled with flowering plants, though rude in 
construction, saved the house mother many a heart- 
ache, reminding her as they did of the beautiful 
gardens in the motherland left behind. 

We find in the earliest records of the new set- 
tlers allusions to flowers, and Reverend Francis 
Higginson speaks of the wild flowers which he 


saw blossoming near the shore. He considered 
them of enough importance to record in his 
diary on June 24, 1629, writing "that wild 
flowers of yellow coloring resembling Gilliflowers 
were seen near the shore as they sighted land, and 
that as they came closer they saw many of these 
flowers scattered here and there, some of the plots 
being from nine to ten feet in size." 

Four of the men who went ashore on the twenty- 
seventh of that month found on the headlands of 
Cape Cod single wild roses. Later on he tells again 
of the number of plants found growing, giving 
their names. These facts have enabled people 
in later years to locate the same flowers growing 
near the same places as when they were first 

Governor Bradford also considered the flowers 
of importance, and in his historical account of the 
Colonies of New England, he tells us that "here 
grow many fine flowers, among them the fair lily 
and the fragrant rose." 

On Governors Island in Boston Harbor were 
rich vineyards and orchards, as well as many varie- 
ties of flowers. Governor Winthrop, inserting a 
clause in the grant, said that vineyards and or- 
chards should be planted here ; that this was com- 


plied with is shown from the fact that the rent in 
1634 was paid with a hogshead of wine. 

Following the growth of colonist gardens, we 
find that John Josslyn arrived in Boston four 
years later, in 1638, and that soon after his arrival 
he visited his brother's plantation in Black Point, 
Maine. He made a careful list of plants that he 
found here, each one of which he carefully de- 
scribed and sent in part to England, and it is 
interesting to note that in those days, the colonists 
in the spring gathered hepaticas, bloodroot, and 
numerous other wild flowers. 

His description of the pitcher plant is graphic : 
"Hollow leaved lavender is a plant that grows in the 
marshes, overgrown with moss, with one straight 
stalk about the bigness of an oat straw. It is 
better than a cubic high, and upon the top is 
found one single fantastic flower. The leaves grow 
close to the root in shape like a tankard, hollow, 
tight, and always full of water." The whole 
plant, so he says, comes into perfection about the 
middle of August, and has leaves and stalks as 
red as blood, while the flower is yellow. 

Mr. Josslyn also speaks of the fact that shrubs 
and flowers brought from England and Holland 
by the Puritans as early as 1626 were the nucleus of 



old-fashioned gardens, and that woadwaxen, now a 
pest covering acres of ground and showing during 
the time of blossoming a brilliant yellow, was 
kept in pots by Governor Endicott, while the 
oxeye daisy and whiteweed were grown on Governor 
Endicott's Danvers farm. 

He also tells us of the gardens with "their 
pleasant, familiar flowers, lavender, hollyhocks, 
and satin." "We call this herbe in Norfolke 
sattin," says Gerard, "and among our women, 
it is called honestie and gillyflowers, which meant 
pinks as well, and dear English roses and eglantine." 

The evolution of the garden commenced at 
this time, and from then until fifty years ago the 
old-fashioned garden was in vogue. There was 
much sameness to this kind of garden; each one 
had its central path of varying width, generally 
with a box border on either side, while inside were 
sweet-smelling flowers, such as mignonette, helio- 
trope, and sweet alyssum. Vine-covered arbors 
were the central feature, and at the end of the 
walk stood a summer-house of simple proportions, 
sometimes so covered with trailing vines as to be 
almost unseen. 

It was here on summer afternoons that our 
grandmothers loved to come for a social cup of tea, 


knitting while breathing in the sweet-scented air, 
permeated with the fragrance of single and double 
peonies, phlox, roses, and bushes of syringa. 
Tall hollyhocks swayed in the breeze, holding 
their stately cups stiff and upright, and there 
were tiger lilies, as well as the dielytra, with its 
row of hanging pink and white blossoms, from 
which the children made boats, rabbits, and other 
fantastic figures. 

In some of the old-time gardens, the small, 
thorny Scotch roses intermingled with the red 
and white roses of York and Lancaster. Little 
wonder that the perfume of their blooms was 
wafted through the air, although they were hidden 
among the taller roses, and there was no visible 
trace of their presence. 

One walked along the broad sidewalks of the 
old-time cities, expecting to find at every turn a 
garden of flowers. Not even a glimpse did they 
obtain, for the gardens of those days were not in 
view, but hidden away behind high board fences 
which have now in many cases been changed for 
iron ones, thus giving to the public glimpses of the 
central arbor and the long line of path with brilliant 
bloom on either side. 

One reason that the gardens in the olden days 



were hidden from view was that the houses, more 
especially the Salem ones, were built close to the 
sidewalk, and there was no chance for flowers in 
front or at either side. 

Most of the noted old gardens have long since 
become things of the past, but a few are still 
left to give hints of the many that long ago were 
the pride of New England housewives. The es- 
tate of the late Captain Joseph Peabody at Danvers, 
Massachusetts, was at one time famed for its 
old-fashioned garden. This lay to the right of 
the avenue of trees that formed the driveway to 
the house. These trees were planted in 1816 by 
Joseph Augustus Peabody, the elder son of the 
owner. The garden proper was hidden from view, 
as one passed up the driveway, but lay at the 
front of the house. In its center was a large 
tulip tree, which still stands, said to be one of the 
oldest and largest in the country. One of the 
unique features of the grounds, and one that has 
existed since the days of Captain Peabody's oc- 
cupancy, is a small summer-house, showing lattice 
work and graceful arches. Its top is dome-shaped, 
surmounted by a gilded pineapple. 

There is, however, another historic summer- 
house on this estate. It was formerly on the 



Elias Hasket Derby property, and was built 
about 1790. This was purchased by the present 
owner of the estate, who had it moved to her 
grounds, a distance of four miles, without a crack 
in the plaster. It was built by Samuel Mclntyre, 
and is decorated with the pilaster and festoons 
that are characteristic of his workmanship. Four 
urns and a farmer whetting his scythe adorn the 
top. Originally a companion piece was at the 
other end, representing a milkmaid with her pail. 
This latter figure was long ago sold by the former 
owner and placed with a spindle in its hand on 
the Sutton Mills at Andover, Massachusetts, 
where it stood for many years until destroyed by 
fire. The house itself contains a tool room on the 
lower floor, while at the head of the staircase is a 
large room, sixteen feet square, containing eight 
windows and four cupboards. It is hung with 
Japanese lanterns, and the closets are filled with 
wonderful old china. Its setting of flowers is 
most appropriate. 

At Oak Knoll in Danvers is still left the garden 
that the poet Whittier so much loved. It stands 
at the side of the house, bordering the avenue that 
leads from the entrance gate. The paths have 
box borders, and inside is a wealth of bloom, the 


central feature being a fountain which was a gift 
from Whittier to the mistress of the home. It was 
here he loved to come during the warm summer 
afternoons to pace up and down, doubtless 
thinking over and shaping many of his most 
noted poems. The garden has been carefully 
tended, and it shows to-day the same flowers that 
were in their prime during his life. 

Another fine example of a box-bordered, old- 
time garden is seen at Newburyport, Massachu- 
setts, on the estate of Mrs. Charles Perry. Here 
the colonial house stands back from the main road, 
with a long stretch of lawn at the front. Passing 
out of the door at the rear, one comes upon a court- 
yard with moss-grown flagging that leads directly 
to the garden itself, fragrant with the incense of 
old-time blooms. 

At Indian Hill, the summer home of the late 
Major Benjamin Perley Poore at West Newbury, 
much care has been given to the gardens to keep 
the flowers as they were in the olden days. A 
feature of this estate, in addition to the gardens, 
is a shapely grove of trees at the rear of the man- 
sion, that took first prize years ago as being the 
finest and best-shaped specimens in the county. 
Many of these trees were named for the major's 


friends, and they bear names well known to New 

More than a century ago, when Salem was the 
trade center of the world, her gardens were re- 
nowned. These gardens were at the rear of the 
dwellings, and it was here that the host and his 
guests came for their after-dinner smoke, sur- 
rounded by the flowers that they loved. 

The first improvements in garden culture were 
made by one George Heussler, who, according 
to Captain Jonathan P. Felt, came to America in 
1780, bringing with him a diploma given him by his 
former employers. Previous to this period he 
had served an apprenticeship in the gardens of 
several German princes, as well as in that of 
the king of Holland, and was, in consequence, 
well qualified for the work. The first experience 
he had in America in gardening was at the home 
of John Tracy in Newburyport, where he worked 
faithfully for several years. Ten years afterwards 
he came to Salem to take charge of the farm and 
garden of Elias Hasket Derby, Senior, at Danvers, 
and later worked in other gardens in the city of 
Salem, where he lived until his death in 1817. 

From the records we glean that on October 21, 
1796, Mr. Heussler gave notice that he had choice 


fruit trees for sale at Mr. Derby's farm, while a 
newspaper of that date informs us that the latter 
gentleman had recently imported valuable trees 
from India and Africa and that he had " an exten- 
sive nursery of useful plants in the neighborhood 
of his rich garden." His son, E. Hersey Derby, 
had a garden of great dimensions at his estate in 
South Salem, or, as it was then called, South 
Fields. This was in 1802, and for a long time the 
fame of this rare and beautiful garden was retained. 

Both of the Derby gardens were worthy of 
attention, and it is said by those in authority 
that in the Derby greenhouse the first night- 
blooming cereus blossomed. This was in 1790, 
and the flower was the true cereus grande flora, 
not the flat-leaved cactus kind that is now culti- 
vated under that name. It was largely the 
influence of the beautiful Derby gardens that 
gave to Salem its impetus for fine garden culture. 

Who knows how many romances have been 
enacted in the old-fashioned gardens of long ago ! 
They were fascinating places for lovers to wander 
and in their vine-clad summer-houses many a 
love-tale was told. The sight of an old-time 
garden recalls to-day the early owners, and in 
imagination one can hear the swish of silken 


skirts as the mistress of the home saunters down 
the central path to take tea with friends in her 
beloved arbor. There were warm friendships 
among neighbors in those days, and the summer 
season was marked by a daily interchange of visits ; 
and so the old-time garden is fraught with memories 
of bygone festivities and perchance of gossip. 

After the close of commerce, the Derby Street 
houses, formerly occupied by the old merchants, 
gradually became deserted, and new houses were 
sought in different parts of the town, farther re- 
moved from shipping interests. Chestnut Street 
was the location of many of these new homes, and 
here the beautiful old-fashioned gardens were 
shown at their best. These were usually inclosed, 
and were reached by a side door, opening directly 
into a veritable wealth of bloom. 

Among the extensive gardens cultivated here 
was a smaller one containing a greenhouse. This 
was owned by John Fiske Allen. Mr. Allen was 
an ardent lover of flowers, and was always in- 
terested in adding some new and rare specimen 
to his collection. From Caleb Ropes in Phila- 
delphia he purchased seed of the Victoria Regia, 
the water lily of the Amazon. These plants 
blossomed for the second time in our country on 


July 28, 1833, the grounds being thronged with 
visitors during the time of their blossoming. This 
fact was called to the attention of William Sharp, 
who had illustrations made for a book on the 
subject. The following year an extension was 
made to the greenhouse, and more seed was 
planted, which had come from England, and, in 
addition, orchids and other plants were grown. 

The Humphrey Devereux house stands almost 
directly across the street from the Allen house. 
This garden, under the care of the next owner, 
Captain Charles Hoffman, became famous, for 
here the first camellias and azaleas in this coun- 
try were planted. One of the former plants is 
still seen in a greenhouse in Salem. Captain Hoff- 
man had a well-trained gardener, named Wilson, 
whose care gave this garden a distinctive name 
in the city. This garden is now the property of 
Dr. James E. Simpson, and it shows like no other 
the direct influence of olden times. There is the 
same vine-clad arbor for the central figure, and 
the plants which are grown behind box borders 
are the same that grew in our grandmothers' 
time. This scheme has been carefully carried out 
by the mistress of the house, who is passionately 
fond of the old-time blossoms. 


In the garden of the Cabot house on Essex 
Street, the first owner of the house imported 
tulips from Holland, and, during the time of their 
blossoming, threw open the garden to friends. 
The later owners improved the garden by adding 
rare specimens of peonies and other plants, and 
have kept the same effects, adding to the gardens' 
beauty each year. 

While the old-fashioned garden has gone into 
decline, yet the modern-day enthusiast has brought 
into his formal gardens the flowers of yesterday. 
The artistic possibilities of these have appealed 
so strongly to the flower lover that they have 
been restored to their own once more. The box 
border is practically a thing of the past, having 
been replaced by flower borders of mignonette 
and sweet alyssum, which afford a fine setting 
for the beds. Like pictures seem these old- 
fashioned gardens, framed with thoughts of days 
long gone by, and one unconsciously sighs for 
those days that are gone, taking with them the 
sweet odor of the flowers that grew in our grand- 
mothers' time. 




THE colonial hall as we have come to think of 
it dignified and spacious, with characteristics 
of unrivaled beauty was not the type in vogue 
in the first years of the country's settlement, but 
rather was the outgrowth of inherent tendencies, 
reflecting in a measure the breadth and attractive- 
ness of the English hallway. 

The earliest dwellings were built for comfort, 
with little regard for effect, and they showed no 
hallways, only a rude entrance door giving directly 
upon the general and often only apartment. Some- 
times this door was sheltered on the outside by a 
quaint closed porch, which afforded additional 
warmth and protection from the driving storms 
of rain or snow; but it was never anything more 
than a mere comfort-seeking appendage, boasting 
no pretentions whatever to architectural merit. 
Crude, indeed, such entrances must have seemed 
to the stern Puritan dwellers, in comparison with 

PLATE XII. Saltonstall Hallway, about 1800. 

PLATE XIII. Hallway, Lee House, 1800. 


those of their ancestral abodes ; and it is not to 
be wondered at if in secret they sometimes longed 
for the hallways of their boyhood, where, after 
the evening meal in the winter season, the family 
was wont to gather about the roaring fire, per- 
chance to listen to some tale of thrilling adventure. 

The first American hall came in with the build- 
ing of the frame house, erected after the early 
hardships were over, and the colonists could afford 
to abandon their rude cabin domiciles. This was 
really little more than an entry, rarely charac- 
terized by any unusual features, but it served as a 
sort of introduction to the home proper, and was 
dignified by the title of hallway. The hall in the 
old Capen house at Topsfield, Massachusetts, be- 
longs to this type. 

Later came the more pretentious hall, typical 
of the gambrel roof house, that enjoyed so long 
a period of popularity. This was generally a 
narrow passage, with doors opening at either 
side into the main front apartments, and with 
the staircase at the end rising in a series of turns 
to the rooms above. The first turn often con- 
tained in one corner a small table, which held a 
candlestick and candle used to light a guest to 
bed, or a grandfather's clock, the dark wood of 



its casing serving as an effective contrast to the 
otherwise light finish of the apartment. 

Not infrequently the hall was solidly paneled, 
and a built-in cupboard or like device was some- 
times concealed behind the paneling; or, as in a 
dwelling in Manchester, Massachusetts, it con- 
tained an innovation in the form of a broad space 
opened between two high beams, halfway up the 
staircase, arranged, no doubt, for the display of 
some choice possession, and showing beneath a 
motto of religious import. 

In the better class of houses of this period, the 
hallway sometimes extended the width of the 
dwelling, opening at the rear on to the yard 
space. This type was the forerunner of the stately 
attractive hall that came into vogue in the last half 
of the eighteenth century, and continued in favor 
during the first years of the nineteenth century, 
with the advent of the wooden and brick mansion. 

Belonging to the earlier class are the Warner 
and Stark halls in New Hampshire. The former 
is paneled from floor to ceiling, the white of the 
finish now mellowed to ivory tones, and serving 
to display to advantage the fine furnishings with 
which it is equipped. At the rear it opens upon 
a grassy yard space, shaded by tall trees, thought 


to be the site of the old slave quarters, long since 
demolished. The walls show several adornments, 
among the most interesting being the enormous 
antlers of an elk, which, tradition tells, were pre- 
sented to the builder of the dwelling by some of 
the Indians with whom he traded, as an evidence 
of their friendship and good will. The latter hall 
is of similar type, entered through a narrow door 
space and continuing the width of the dwelling; 
it ends at the rear in a quaint old door that shows 
above its broad wooden panels a row of green 
bull's eyes, specimens of early American glass 
manufacture, still rough on the inside where 
detached from the molding bar. This door gives 
upon an old-time garden plot, fragrant with the 
blooms of its original planting, and preserving 
intact its early features. Rare bits of old furni- 
ture are used in the equipment of this hall, and 
the paneled walls are hung with family portraits. 
When unwearied toil had made living consider- 
ably easier, and many of the merchants had 
amassed fortunes, there sprang up, in both the 
North and the South, those charming colonial 
mansions that were the fit abode of a brave race. 
They demanded hallways of spacious dimensions, 
and into favor then came the broad and lofty 



hall, embodying in its construction the highest 
development of the colonial type. Quite through 
the center of the house this hall extended, from 
the pillared portico and stately entrance door, 
with its fan lights and brazen knocker, to an- 
other door at the rear, through the glazed upper 
panels of which tantalizing glimpses could be 
obtained of tall hollyhocks and climbing roses 
growing in the old-fashioned garden just without. 
In a measure this hall was a reproduction of 
the English type, particularly in its spaciousness 
of dimension. Unlike this type, however, it 
lacked the dominant influence of the fireplace, and 
in its construction it showed several independent 
features, all tending to emphasize the attractive 
dignity suggested in the broadness of outline. 
Often an elliptical arch spanned the width at about 
one third the length, generally serving to frame 
the staircase, and tending to make dominant the 
attractiveness of this feature. This was usually 
little more than a skeleton arch, being a sugges- 
tion, rather than a reality, sometimes plain, and 
sometimes slightly ornamental. This feature is 
shown in the Lee hall at Salem, and in the main 
hall of the old Governor Wentworth house at 
Little Harbor, New Hampshire. This latter hall 


is particularly interesting, not only for its beauty 
of construction, but also for its historic associa- 
tions. Under its arch, framing the fine old stair- 
case, men prominent in the history of the State 
and country have passed, and on the walls and 
over the door are still seen stacks of arms, thir- 
teen in number, the muskets of the governor's 
guard, so long dismissed. 

The most important feature of all these halls 
was the staircase, and in its construction the 
greatest interest was centered. Generally it as- 
cended by broad, low treads to a landing lighted 
by a window of artistic design, and continued in a 
shorter flight to the second floor apartments. It 
was always located at one side, and generally 
near the rear, to allow the placing of furniture 
without crowding. The balusters were usually 
beautifully carved and hand turned, with newel 
posts of graceful design ; and sometimes even the 
risers showed carved effects. The cap rail was 
usually of mahogany. Hard wood was sometimes 
used in the construction of the staircase, the 
treads in this event being dark and polished, 
while soft wood painted white was also much used. 

The finish of the walls in this type of hall varied. 
Some were entirely paneled, others showed a 


quaint landscape paper above a low white wain- 
scot, and still others showed hangings of pictorial 
import, framed like great pictures. To the last- 
named class belongs the Lee hall at Marblehead, 
considered to be one of the finest examples of its 
type extant. Black walnut is the wood finish 
here, and the hangings, designed by a London 
artist, are in soft tones of gray, beautifully blended, 
and represent scenes of ruined Greece, each set 
in a separate panel, handsomely carved. 

Occasionally, to-day, a staircase of the spiral 
type is found, a type that possesses certain 
satisfying characteristics, but which never en- 
joyed the popularity of the straight staircase. 
Some few of the staircases in the old Derby Street 
mansions at Salem are of this type, as is the stair- 
case at Oak Knoll, in Danvers, the poet Whittier's 
last residence. The common name for this type 
of staircase was winder. 

A large number of representatives of the finest 
type of the colonial hall are scattered throughout 
the North and South, and their sturdiness of con- 
struction bids fair to make them valued examples 
indefinitely. One particularly good example is 
shown at Hey Bonnie Hall, in Bristol, Rhode 
Island, a mansion built on Southern lines, and 

PLATE XV. Hallway, Wentworth House, 1750. 


suggesting in its construction the hospitality of 
that section. Here the hall is twenty feet wide ; 
the walls are tinted their original coloring, a soft 
rich green, that harmonizes perfectly with the 
white woodwork and the deep, mellow tones of 
the priceless old mahogany of the furnishings. A 
well-designed, groined arch forming a portion of 
the ceiling, and supported at the corners by four 
slender white pillars, is one of the apartment's 
attractive adjuncts, while the dominant feature 
is the staircase that rises at the farther end, five 
feet in width, with treads of solid mahogany and 
simple but substantial balusters of the same wood 
on either side. The upper hall is as distinctive 
as the lower one, and exactly corresponds in length 
and width. Wonderful old furnishings are placed 
here, and at one end is displayed a fine bit of 
architectural work in a fanlight window, over- 
looking the garden. 

One wonders, when viewing such a hall as this, 
how this type could ever have been superseded 
in house construction, but with the gradual decline 
in favor of the colonial type of dwelling, it was 
abolished, and in place of its lofty build and 
attractive spaciousness, halls of cramped dimen- 
sions came into vogue, culminating in the entry 


passage typical of houses built toward the middle 
of the nineteenth century. Happily, present-day 
house builders are coming to a realizing sense of 
the importance of the hallway, and are beginning 
to appreciate the fact that, to be attractive, the 
hall must be ample, well lighted, and of pleasing 
character. With this realization the beauty of 
the colonial hall has again demanded attention, 
and in a large number of modern homes it has 
been copied in a modified degree. 




IT is a far cry from the fireplaces of early times 
to those of the present, when elaborate fittings 
make them architecturally notable. We read 
that in the Middle Ages, the fire in the banquet 
hall was laid on the floor in the center of the large 
apartment, the smoke from the blazing logs, as it 
curled slowly upward, escaping through a hole 
cut in the ceiling. Later, during the Renaissance 
period, the fire was laid close to the wall, the 
space set apart for it framed with masonry jambs 
that supported a mantel shelf. A projecting hood 
of stone or brick carried the smoke away, and the 
jambs were useful, inasmuch as they protected 
the fire from draughts. From this time, the 
evolution of the fireplace might be said to date, 
improvement in its arrangement being worked 
out gradually, until to-day it is numbered among 
the home's most attractive features. It is in- 
teresting to note, in reference to these latter-day 
specimens, that many of them are similar in design 


to those of the Renaissance, Louis Sixteenth, and 
colonial periods. 

Not a few of the early fireplaces were of the 
inglenook type, a fad that has been revived and 
is much in evidence in modern dwellings ; and 
many of them followed certain periods, such as 
the Queen Anne style and the Elizabethan design. 
Several, too, were topped with mantels, features 
practical as well as ornamental, which are almost 
always associated with the fireplaces of to-day. 
Many of the old mantels were very narrow, pro- 
hibiting ornamentation with pottery or small bits 
of bric-a-brac; they were so built, because the 
designers of early times considered them suffi- 
ciently decorative in themselves without any 
additional embellishment, and their sturdiness 
and architectural regularity seem to justify this 
opinion. Mantels and fireplaces of early Renais- 
sance type show in detail an elegance that is 
characteristic of all the work of that period, the 
Italian designers being masters in their line. 

In the baronial halls of Merrie England, we find 
huge fireplaces, wide enough to hold the Yule log, 
around which, after the chase, the followers 
gathered to drink deep of the wassail bowl. Such 
pictures must have lingered long in the minds of 


the colonists in their new surroundings, and to us 
they are suggestive of the Squire in "Old Christ- 
mas," who, seated in his great armchair, close by 
the fire, contentedly smoked his pipe and gazed 
into the heart of the flickering flames, filled with 
the joy of his ancestral possessions. 

Life with the early colonists was a stern reality. 
The climate here was far more rigorous than that 
of the motherland, and a home and a warm fire 
were the two necessities first demanded. Logs 
from the near-by forest afforded the former, while 
rocks taken from the clearings supplied the latter. 
The fireplaces of those days were perhaps the 
largest ever built in any land, some ten feet or 
more in depth, and broad enough to hold the logs 
which were stacked just outside the cabin door. 
The rude stones which formed the fireplace were 
piled wall fashion, the largest at the bottom and 
the smallest on top, the chinks between made 
strong by daubings of clay. Later, the builders 
gave a more finished effect to this feature, and the 
hearths were then extended many feet into the 
single large apartment, while on either side were 
placed rude, home-made benches with high backs, 
to shield the inmates from the cold felt outside 
the circle of the fire's warmth. 


At the rear of the fireplace was arranged a huge 
backlog, to afford protection to the stones, and also 
to throw the heat into the room. This was often 
of unseasoned timber, that it might last the longer, 
two feet in diameter, and eight feet or more in length. 
Firedogs were used to hold the smaller logs, while 
creepers were employed for the smallest of all, and 
to start the fire, small pine boughs and small tim- 
bers were heaped high, flint and tinder serving to 
ignite them. Once started, the fire was kept in- 
definitely, being carefully covered at night or piled 
with peat ; above the blaze swung the soot-black- 
ened crane, with its various pots and kettles. Such 
was the early colonial kitchen, the fireplace its domi- 
nant feature, the light from its glowing logs throw- 
ing into relief the sanded floor, bare, unplastered 
walls, and the rafters overhead. With the coming 
of prosperity, these rude log huts gave way to tim- 
ber houses, two stories in height, and with their 
advent the better type of colonial fireplaces came 
into vogue. 

Dating as far back as the earliest fireplaces are 
found fire sets, as they were sometimes called, com- 
prising the hearth accessories necessary for an open 
fire. The oldest of these sets, which were in use 
long before coal was burned as fuel, consisted usu- 


ally of a pair of andirons, a long-handled fire shovel, 
and a pair of tongs. In some cases more than one 
set of andirons was included, for in the great, 
cavernous fireplaces of the colonists' log cabins, the 
high supports used for the heavy forestick and logs 
were not suitable for the smaller wood, and creep- 
ers had to be set between the large andirons to hold 
the short sticks in place. Bellows were often found 
beside the fireplace in those times, but the poker 
was rarely if ever included in fire sets, previous 
to the introduction of coal as a fuel. 

In material and design these fire sets, particularly 
the andirons, differed widely. Iron, steel, copper, 
and brass were the metals most commonly used 
for their construction, although in other countries 
even silver was occasionally made into fire irons. 
As for design, they ranged from the very simplest 
and most unpretentious styles up through the quaint 
dogs' heads to the grotesque figures and elaborately 
wrought pieces to be found among good collections 
of antique hearth accessories. 

Andirons for kitchen use were as a rule very plain 
and substantial. Sometimes they were merely 
straight pieces supported by short legs and having 
uprights of either plain or twisted metal, topped by 
small knots of some sort. They were probably 


most commonly made of iron, and not a few were 
rudely hammered and shaped on the pioneer black- 
smith's anvil. It is consequently little to be won- 
dered at that many of the andirons once used in co- 
lonial kitchens give one the impression of having 
been designed for strength and utility rather than 
for ornament. 

The better class of andirons in use during the 
seventeenth and early part of the eighteenth cen- 
turies were for the most part of graceful, but, at the 
same time, simple and dignified designs. The finest 
ones were of brass, which was kept brightly polished 
by the energetic housekeeper. Short knobs or 
uprights were often placed a few inches back of the 
main uprights and served the double purpose of 
holding the forestick in place and of protecting 
the shining brass. Occasionally andirons were made 
in rights and lefts with the shanks curving outward 
from the short knobs where they joined the 
straight, horizontal supports. 

Among other popular andiron designs of this 
period were the twisted flame, the urn topped, the 
queer iron and brass dogs with claw feet, the 
colonial baluster, and the steeple topped. Of 
these, the steeple-topped andirons were perhaps the 
rarest, while the colonial baluster pattern with 


ball tops was, without doubt, the most popular 
and commonly used. 

A good example of the style of andirons which 
came into favor during the latter half of the 
eighteenth century is found in the Hessian design. 
They take their name from the fact that the up- 
right of each iron is cast in the form of a Hessian 
soldier, posed as if in the act of marching. Since 
this particular pattern first made its appearance 
immediately after the close of the American 
Revolution, it is not difficult to comprehend its 
significance, for it is a well-known fact that the 
patriotic colonists heartily hated the hired allies 
in the employ of King George of England who had 
fought against them. This humbling of the Hes- 
sian to service among the flames and ashes, although 
only in effigy, seemed to afford the Americans a 
great deal of satisfaction, if the great popularity of 
these andirons stood for anything. 

Probably no finer collection of colonial hearths 
is to be found anywhere than in Salem. The Derby 
Street mansions even now show wonderful bits of 
the skill which has made Salem a name synonymous 
of the best in the architectural world. Mclntyre 
designed many of these, following in some cases the 
style of the decorator, Adams. Many of the man- 


tels show a wonderful harmony of contour, capped 
by a simple shelf, for the most part unadorned. 
One such is seen in the Gove house on Lynde Street, 
its straight, simple lines affording dignity and grace 
that are most attractive. The decoration is the 
head of Washington, fixing the period of its con- 
struction about the time of the Revolution. 

Other popular decorations were the eagle, which 
came into favor at the same period as the Washing- 
ton decoration, baskets of flowers, wonderfully 
delicate in their carving, garlands, and many such 
designs, in all of which Mclntyre shows a versa- 
tility that, considering the limitations of his day, 
is truly remarkable. 

While many of the mantels were of wood, some 
few were of marble. Two such of special interest 
are to be found, one in the Thomas Sanders's house 
on Chestnut Street, and the other in Hon. David M. 
Little's residence on the same thoroughfare. The 
former shows an exquisite design, supported on 
either side by caryatids, gracefully carved ; and 
the latter, of the same period, is practically of the 
same design. A third marble mantel is found in 
the home of the Salem Club, formerly the residence 
of Captain Joseph Peabody. This mantel is of 
Florentine marble and was imported by the cap- 

PLATE XIX. Middleton House Steeple Top Andirons, and 
Bellows ; Southern Andirons, Atkinson Collection. 


tain in 1819. It is particularly beautiful in its 
finish, and has served as an inspiration for many 
similar mantels to be found in New England. 

Belonging to the early type is the quaint fire- 
place found in the hallway of the Robinson house 
on Chestnut Street. This apartment was for- 
merly the kitchen, and the fireplace in its original 
condition was discovered in the process of remodel- 
ing. Upon investigation, it was found to be a 
composite of three separate fireplaces, built one 
within the other, and culminating outwardly in a 
small grate ; and when opened, it showed portions 
of the old pothooks. It was restored to its original 
aspect, appearing to-day as it was first constructed, 
its narrow mantel adorned with rare bits of pewter. 

In what was formerly the home of Mrs. Nathaniel 
B. Mansfield in Salem, is a curious mantel, which was 
first owned by Mr. Fabens. It is one of the rarest 
bits of Mclntyre's work, decorated with his best 
wrought and finest planned carving. Another fine 
mantel is in the home of Hon. George von L. Meyer 
at Hamilton, Massachusetts. This is as historic 
as it is beautiful, and was part of the original equip- 
ment of the Crowninshield house in Boston. 

Many of the later style fireplaces, more especially 
of the better class, showed firebacks. These were 



of iron, and were designed to keep the back of the 
fireplace from cracking. Some of these old fire- 
backs had flowers for ornamentation, while others 
showed decoration in the form of family coats-of- 
arms. In the Pickering house on Broad Street, 
Salem, is a quaint fireback which was made in the 
first iron foundry at Saugus, now Lynn. This has 
on the back the initials of the then owners of the 
dwelling, John and Alice Pickering, inscribed as 
follows, " J. A. P. 1660." This same Alice Picker- 
ing was very fond of dress, and an old record of 1650 
tells that she wore to church a silken hood. For this 
offense she was reprimanded and brought before the 
church, but was allowed to go when it was learned 
that she was worth two hundred pounds. 

By the beginning of the eighteenth century, 
fireplaces had come to be considered of great decora- 
tive importance, and in an account written in 1750 
Isaac Ware says of them : "With us no article in a 
well-furnished room is more essential. The eye 
immediately falls upon it on entering the room, 
and the place for sitting down is naturally near it. 
By this means it becomes the most prominent thing 
in the furnishing of the room." 

The popularity of the fireplace was somewhat 
checked in 1745 through the invention of the 


Franklin stove, which immediately came into favor. 
These stoves were constructed of iron, with trim- 
mings of rosettes and railing and knobs of varying 
size ; in appearance they were very similar to the 
small, open fireplace with andirons for burning logs. 
As heat producers, however, they were a decided 
improvement over the old-time hearth, which in 
many cases smoked abominably, and sent much of 
the heat up the chimney instead of into the room. 
The new stoves proved economical, and there was 
but little waste of heat through the pipes connect- 
ing them with the chimneys. 

In the dining room of Harriet Prescott Spofford's 
house at Newburyport is one of these stoves, before 
which Whittier delighted to sit during his frequent 
visits to this old home. It is a fine specimen of its 
kind, and as interesting in its way as the quaint 
room which it graces. For many years this dwell- 
ing served as an inn, kept by one Ebenezer Pear- 
son, being one of the favorite resorts for pleasure 
parties, and in the old-time dining room much bril- 
liant parrying of wit took place, as distinguished 
visitors amiably chatted over their teacups. 

Later in the eighteenth century, another form of 
heating came into vogue. This was the fire frame, 
which appeared about thirty years after the inven- 


tion of the Franklin stove, and in type was some- 
thing of a compromise between the open fireplace 
and the stove, possessing certain characteristics of 
each. It was so arranged that it could be used in a 
fireplace that had either been filled in with brick, or 
finished with a fireboard, and in appearance was 
very similar to the upper part of a Franklin stove. 
Unlike the stove, however, it rested directly upon 
the fireplace hearth, instead of being raised from the 

When coal first came into use, a Salem man saw 
it burn, and so impressed was he with its worth that 
he told Dr. George Perkins of Lynde Street about 
it. The doctor immediately ordered a barrel of 
the fuel to be brought down in a baggage wagon 
from Boston, and he also ordered a new-fangled 
stove of the hob grate order. The trial took place 
in the living-room of his home, and the neighbors 
gathered to watch it burn. So great was the success 
of the venture that a load of coal was ordered, and 
it landed at the North River wharf, where the water 
was then so deep that vessels could easily come to 
pier there. The cargo consisted of from one hun- 
dred and sixty to one hundred and seventy tons, 
considered an enormous load at the time. 

The first coal burned in a stove was in Wilkes- 


barre, Pennsylvania, where Judge Jesse Fell, in 
the main room of the old tavern, in February, 1808, 
started the first coal fire. Previous to that time 
coal had been burned in open forges, under a heavy 
draught, by a few blacksmiths, but it had never 
been adapted for household purposes, and the dis- 
covery that it could be used changed it from a use- 
less thing to something of great value. 

In 1812 Colonel George Shoemaker discovered 
coal in the Susquehanna Valley, and he took twelve 
tons of it to Philadelphia to sell. He disposed of 
two tons, but was compelled to give the rest away, 
as people considered him a fraud, proving that the 
use of coal was not general at this period. 

The hob grate came into use in 1750, a few years 
after the advent of the Franklin stove, and it proved 
especially valuable for the burning of coal, when 
that product became popular. At first it was 
known as "Cat Stone," but later was called hob 
grate, by which name it is known at the present 

Fenders of brass or iron were generally used with 
these grates, a small one placed close to the fire to 
prevent the ashes from falling over the hearth, 
and a larger one arranged around the entire fire- 
place. Although hob grates were popular in North- 



ern houses, they were much more frequently used 
in the South. 

Tiles were little used in America until the hob 
grate era, when they seem to have come into vogue. 
They were used to surround both hob grates and 
Franklin stoves. Some of them showed decora- 
tions of religious subjects, while others, like a set 
in a Salem house, told in pictures the story of ^Esop's 
Fables. There is a tiled fireplace still in existence 
in the Saltonstall-Howe house at Haverhill, Mas- 
sachusetts, a dwelling originally owned by Dr. 
Saltonstall, the first medical practitioner in the city. 
This fireplace, in the dining-room, shows a double 
row of tiles, depicting a series of Scriptural events, 
and it is equipped with a fender of ancient ham- 
mered brass, a family heirloom. The date of the 
fireplace can be definitely determined without 
knowledge of the time of the erection of the house 
from the fact of the absence of a mantel above. 
Another similar fireplace adorned with quaint 
Dutch tiles is shown in the Pickering house living- 
room. Like the Saltonstall one, this fireplace has 
a beautiful, ancient fender of brass and a pair 
of bellows that were made by Rev. Theophilus 
Pickering, a preacher in Essex, Massachusetts, who 
succeeded the Rev. John Wise. 


The first hob grate ever placed in a Salem home is to 
be seen in the Waters house on Washington Square. 
It is topped with one of Mclntyre's famous man- 
tels, showing that the original fireplace was brought 
down to be used with the grate. 

Elias Hasket Derby, one of Salem's most famous 
merchants, had a beautiful estate where Market 
Square now stands. The house, which was a 
marvel of elegance, stood in the center of the 
square, surrounded with terraced gardens that 
swept to the water's edge. After his death the 
house was too large and elegant to be kept up, 
and it was torn down and the land sold. The 
timbers of the house, the wood carving, and man- 
tels were purchased by Salem house owners, one 
hob grate finding its way to the old Henry K. 
Oliver house on Federal Street. This dwelling, 
which was built in 1802 by Captain Samuel Cook 
for his daughter, who married Mr. Oliver, shows 
old-time fireplaces in many rooms, one of brass being 
found in the parlor. This was the first of its kind 
ever placed in a Salem home, and it has a grate, on 
either side of which are brass pillars about three feet 
in height, with brass balls on top. A brass band 
extends from pillar to pillar below the grate, and 
the fender is also of brass. The mantel above is 



elegantly carved, and came from the Elias Hasket 
Derby mansion. 

A soapstone fireplace with grate is shown in the 
General Stephen Abbot house on Federal Street, 
where General Abbot, who served under Washington, 
entertained the latter during his visit to Salem. 
Behind this, fireplace is a secret closet, large enough 
to conceal three men, where, during troublous times, 
slaves were hidden. 

With the advent of the furnace, many beautiful 
fireplaces were closed up, or taken away to be re- 
placed by modern ones that lacked in every respect 
the dignity and grace of the colonial specimens. 
Happily this state of affairs was of short duration, 
and to-day the fireplace in all its original charm 
is a feature of many homes. To be sure, it is now 
a luxury rather than a necessity, but it is a luxury 
that is enjoyed not only by the wealthy classes, but 
by those in moderate circumstances as well, who 
appreciate the great decorative advantages of this 
feature. Surely there is nothing more homelike 
than the warm glow of blazing logs, and it is a 
delight to sit before the sputtering flames, and 
enjoy the warmth and glow, as did our ancestors 
in the long ago. 




THE records of many old-time features are scanty 
in detail, and, in consequence, their meaning is 
differently and often wrongly interpreted. Even 
one who has spent years in delving into the past 
secures facts that differ materially from those 
obtained by some one else who has spent a like 
time in research, and thus accounts of varying 
dependency are propounded for reference. This is 
especially true in tracing the origin of the old pic- 
ture wall papers that, with the revival of colonial 
ideas, are again coming into vogue. 

One may prate about the papers of to-day, but 
they cannot compare either in style or in effect 
with these early types, which show designs pa- 
tiently and carefully worked out by men who were 
masters of their craft, and who, while lacking the 
advantages afforded the designers of the present, 
nevertheless achieved results that have never been 
surpassed. This fact is especially noteworthy, 
and it is wholly to the credit of these old-time 


craftsmen that their products are to-day an 
inspiration to architects and home builders who are 
seeking the best in the way of interior decoration. 

When wall papers first came into use is uncer- 
tain, for various authorities with apparently good 
reason set different times. China claims the honor 
of having originated them, as does Japan, while 
Holland boasts the distinction of having first in- 
troduced them into other lands. We know for a 
certainty that wall papers fashioned in strips three 
feet long and fifteen inches wide were made in 
Holland centuries ago and introduced into England 
and France, and latter-day specimens, of similar 
type, are to be found in the homes of the colonists 
in our own land. 

The printing of these decorative wall papers was 
at first done from blocks, much as books were 
printed in early times. While it may not have been 
block printing, a unique wall hanging of like type 
was to be seen until within the last few years in a 
colonial house on Essex Street, at Salem the 
Lindall-Andrews dwelling, built in 1740 by Judge 
Lindall. This wall paper, printed and hung in 
squares, adorned the parlor at the left of the hall- 
way, and before its removal a reproduction was 
made by Bumstead for a descendant of the first 

PLATE XX. Cupid and Psyche paper, Safford House. 

PLATE XXI. Venetian paper in Wheelwright House, 


owner to use on the walls of a room in her summer 

Dr. Thomas Barnard, minister of the First 
Church, who succeeded in arranging for a com- 
promise at the time of Leslie's Retreat, lived in 
this dwelling during his pastorate, and on the 
walls of the hallway he caused to have painted by 
one Bartol of Marblehead, father of Dr. Cyrus 
Bartol, a series of wonderfully realistic pastoral 
scenes, that have never been removed and are 
still to be seen, although their brightness has 
been dimmed by time. 

Pictorial wall paper did not come into general 
favor in Europe until the eighteenth century, the 
period that marked the adoption of the long roll 
still in vogue. To be sure, this type had been used 
much earlier by the Chinese, but machinery for its 
fashioning was not invented until the latter half 
of the eighteenth century. Up to this time, wall 
paper was made in small squares and laboriously 
hung, a fact that made it expensive and accord- 
ingly prohibitive to all but the wealthy classes. 

Jackson of Battersea in 1744 published a book 

of designs taken from Italian scenes and bits of 

sculpture. These were pictures done as panels 

and printed in oils, and resulted in the adoption 



of printed wall paper throughout England. From 
that time on, as their cost grew less, wall papers 
were extensively used in the motherland, which 
fact accounts for the general adoption of this type 
of wall hanging by the colonists, as the new land 
grew richer, and square, substantial homes were 

In the early days of the colonies, there were few 
mechanics who were able to furnish settings for 
the new homes, and consequently the home 
builders were forced to depend on foreign lands 
for most of their furnishings. Among these, wall 
hangings were not included, due partly to the fact 
that there was no place for them in the rude cabins 
of early times, and partly because they were not 
then in general use. Wall papers were first brought 
to this country in 1735, though, owing to their 
expensiveness, they were not used to any extent 
until many years later. The frugal housewife pre- 
ferred to paint the walls either in soft gray tones, 
with a mixture of gray clay and water, or with 
yellow paint, ornamented with a hand-painted 
frieze of simple design, often supplemented by a 
narrow border stenciled above the chair rail. The 
earliest examples of this work depicted the rose, 
the poppy, the violet, or the pink, followed later 



by depictions of human interest, such as Indians, 
wigwams, forest scenes, etc. This idea has been 
carried out in the recently renovated Kimball 
house at Georgetown, Massachusetts, where the 
mistress of the home has used for wall adornment 
hand-painted friezes of soft-tinted flowers and 
emblematic designs. 

Later, wall papers were brought here in quanti- 
ties, and while a number of these rare old hangings 
have been removed and replaced by others of 
modern type, yet there are many left, each rich in 
memories of bygone days. The stories connected 
with them will never be known, save the legends 
which have been handed down from generation to 
generation, and which the present grandames love 
to repeat, as they sit at twilight by the open fire, 
and the roaring of the logs recalls to mind the olden 

Much of the wall paper brought here was made 
to order from accurate measurements, and much 
was carefully selected in accordance with previous 
instructions. Often special patterns were pur- 
chased for a new home by a young lover, and into 
their selection went fond and happy thoughts of 
the bride-to-be. 

Even to this day one occasionally finds, stored 


away in some old attic, rolls of priceless paper which 
had been brought here years ago and never used. 
To the student and dreamer such a discovery is 
rich in association, and even to the practical home 
maker it is fraught with suggestions. There is 
something genuine about it, a touch of quaintness 
and simplicity that, for lack of a more accurate 
term, we call colonial. 

From one such attic, not so very long ago, were 
brought to light rolls of rare old paper, which had 
been hidden away under the eaves for forty years. 
Upon investigation this was found to be the Don 
Quixote pattern, one of the three rarest types 
known, depicting the story of this quaint character 
from the time of his leaving his home accompanied 
by his faithful squire, Sancho Panza, to the time 
of his return, a sadder and wiser man. The scenes 
are worked out in soft gray tones, wonderfully 
blended, providing a harmonious and attractive 

On the walls of a third-story room in the Andrew 
house on Washington Square, Salem, is shown a 
wonderful wall paper, representing an old-time 
English hunt. In the first picture of the series 
the soft green of the trees furnishes a contrasting 
background for the red coats of the hunters who, 
[8 4 1 


on prancing steeds, with yelping hounds grouped 
about, are ready for the start. Then follow the 
run over hill and dale, past cottages where wonder- 
ing peasants gape in open-mouthed admiration 
at the brilliant train as it flashes by, and the bring- 
ing of the fox to bay, ending with the luncheon 
upon the greensward, showing the huntsmen and 
their ladies fair enjoying a well-earned repast. 

When this dwelling was first built, the parlor, 
at the right of the hallway, was papered in a rare 
old hanging, that was removed when defaced, the 
owners at the time giving little thought to its 
value. In the room, since its erection, has hung a 
great, handsomely framed mirror, occupying an 
entire panel space. Behind this mirror, a short 
time ago, when the room was to be repapered, a 
panel of the first wall covering was discovered, as 
distinct in coloring and detail as the day it was 
placed there. It is one of twelve panels, con- 
sisting of twenty-six breadths each five feet seven 
inches long by twenty inches wide, fifteen hundred 
blocks being used in its printing, depicting the 
marriage of Cupid and Psyche, Psyche's lack of 
faith, and the sad ending of the romance, and is a 
pattern that is numbered among the most noted 
designed. The panel found here has been pre- 


served, and the old mirror hung in place hides it 
from view. 

Such papers are a keen delight to lovers of the 
colonial, for they convey their meaning clearly and 
attractively in well-chosen and harmonious color- 
ing. Contrasted with present papers, depicting 
designs figured or flowered, they show their worth, 
and it is little wonder that architects have dis- 
covered their fascination, and are having old ideas 
in new dress depicted on the walls of many modern 

The colonists understood harmony in home 
decoration, and their wall hangings as well as their 
furniture were carefully chosen. They purchased 
papers to suit their apartments, and the colors 
were selected with a view to the best effect, so that 
the soft white of the woodwork might be in keep- 
ing with their pictorial value. Consistency is the 
keynote of the colonial interior, and it is this 
feature that has given to homes of this type that 
touch of distinction that no other period of archi- 
tecture possesses. 

The old wall papers all represent foreign scenes, 

those of France and England predominating, the 

latter in a greater degree than the former, though 

the French papers were more highly finished than 



the English. When the colonist became prosper- 
ous, and the newest fashions of the motherland 
were eagerly copied, wall papers of both types were 
imported ; many of these are still preserved, showing 
shadings done by hand with the utmost care, and col- 
orings of lovely reds, blues, and browns, all produced 
by the use of from fifteen to twenty sets of blocks. 

One of the most exquisite of French papers is 
shown in the Knapp house at Newburyport, Massa- 
chusetts, built by a Revolutionary hero, at the 
time of the erection of the Lee Mansion at Marble- 
head. This paper is thought to have been fash- 
ioned in the first quarter of the nineteenth century, 
and in type it is like that found on the hall of the 
"Hermitage," Andrew Jackson's residence near 
Nashville, Tennessee. It is produced in wonder- 
ful shades of soft green, red, peacock blue, and white, 
all undimmed by time, and it represents scenes 
from Fenelon's "Adventure of Telemachus," a 
favorite novelty in Paris in 1820. 

Other fine examples of this type of paper, which 
have never been hung, are still preserved in the 
home of Major George Whipple at Salem, having 
been imported about 1800. These show different 
scenes, including representations of gateways and 
fountains, with people in the foreground. 


Natural scenes were favorite themes with many 
designers, one such example being a Venetian 
scheme still shown on the walls of the Wheelwright 
house in Newburyport, a fine, colonial dwelling, 
built a hundred years ago by an ancestor of 
William Wheelwright, whose energies resulted 
in the first railroad over the Andes. This paper 
is found in the drawing-room, and another, illustra- 
tive of a chariot race, is shown in one of the cham- 

The Bay of Naples was another favorite theme 
with designers ; in fact, it was numbered among 
the best-liked subjects. Its faithfulness of detail 
and exquisite coloring are no doubt responsible for 
this popularity, and then, too, no other subject 
could better bear repetition. Other favorite views 
were scenes of France, more particularly of Paris, 
and these types were in great favor during Wash- 
ington's administration and that of John Adams, 
though later they lost caste. 

The new landscape papers suggest the old ones, 
though they are unlike them in tone and character, 
except in cases where specimens have been taken as 
models and copied with faithful exactness. Such 
instances, however, are rare. The best examples 
of old specimens of this type date from twenty-five 


years prior to the Revolution up to about fifty 
years afterwards. 

Fine examples of such paper are still to be seen 
at the Lee Mansion at Marblehead, now the home 
of the Marblehead Historical Society. These, 
like many others, were made to order in England by 
accurate measurements, proof positive of this fact 
being gleaned a few years ago when the panel 
between the two windows in the upper hall was 
peeled off, and on the back was found the following 
inscription, "n Regent Street, London. Between 
windows, upper hall." They are all excellently 
preserved, and constitute probably the most remark- 
able set in America. For the most part, they are 
done in gray, outlined in black, and depict old 
Roman ruins, set like framed pictures, in alterna- 
tion with strange heraldic devices, like coats of 
arms. In some of the rooms the papers are in 
sepia tones, showing castellated scenery, sailboats 
gliding over lakes, and peasant figures loitering 
along the shore. 

Another interesting wall paper is found at Hills- 
boro, New Hampshire, in the home of Governor 
Pierce, father of Franklin Pierce, fourteenth Presi- 
dent of the United States, which is now used as an 
inn. The room that it adorns is set apart, and the 


pattern depicts galleys setting sail for foreign lands, 
while to the music of the harpsichord, the gentry 
dance upon the lawn. In its prime this estate was 
one of the show places of Hillsboro, with beautiful 
gardens surrounding the house, and interesting 
features in the way of peacocks that proudly dis- 
played themselves to the gaze of admiring guests. 
Unlike these old-time papers, and yet equally as 
distinctive, is the wall covering in the hall of the 
Warner house at Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
This is a series of paintings, extending the length of 
the staircase, and constituting the most unique 
wall adornment in the country. Ever since the 
hall was finished, there has been displayed at the 
staircase landing, in the broad spaces at either side 
of the central window, life-sized paintings of two 
Indians, highly decorated and finely executed, 
thought to be representations of fur traders of early 
times ; but the rest of the series was lost to view 
for a long time until about sixty years ago, when the 
hall was repaired. During the process of renova- 
tion, four coats of paper that had accumulated were 
removed, and as the last coat was being torn off, 
the picture of a horse's hoof was disclosed. This 
led to further investigation, and soon a painting of 
Governor Phipps, resplendent in scarlet and yel- 


low, seated on his charger, was brought to light, 
followed by the representation of a lady carding wool 
at a colonial spinning-wheel, who had been inter- 
rupted in her task by the alighting of a hawk 
among chickens. Next came a Scriptural scene, 
that of Abraham offering up Isaac, followed by a 
foreign city scene, and several other sketches, cov- 
ering in all an area of between four and five hundred 
square feet. The entire paintings to-day are 
presented in their original beauty, and they lend 
to the fine hall an atmosphere of interesting quaint- 

But whatever their type, the old wall hangings 
are always attractive. Sometimes it is the sub- 
ject that most strongly appeals, again it is the 
coloring, or it may be the effect, but in any event 
each and every one serves the purpose for which 
it was intended, and a room hung with old-time 
wall paper is undeniably beautiful, affording a 
setting that modern effects rarely equal. 



THERE is a charm about old furnishings that 
cannot fail to appeal to all lovers of the quaint and 
interesting, and a study of their characteristics is a 
diversion well worth while. Old-time cabinet-mak- 
ers understood the value of bestowing upon details 
the same consideration they gave main features, 
and, as a result, their work shows that harmony 
that gives to it n interest not found in later types, 
and which, more than anything else, has helped 
bring it into prominence in the equipment of mod- 
ern dwellings. While this is true of all colonial 
fittings, it is especially true of the chair, for this 
article more than any other depicts the gradual 
betterment of rudely formed beginnings culmi- 
nating in the work of the three master craftsmen, 
Chippendale, Hepplewhite, and Sheraton, whose 
designs, even to-day, serve as an inspiration to high- 
class cabinet-makers. 

In the early days of the colonies, chairs were 

PLATE XXIV. Queen Anne, Fiddle Back; Queen Anne, 
stuffed chair; Dutch Chair, carved; Empire Lyre-backed 
Roundabout on Chippendale lines, 1825. 

PLATE XXV. Chippendale, Lord Timothy Dexter's Collection, 
H. P. Benson; French Chair, showing Empire influence; 


scarce appurtenances, and the few used, generally 
not more than three in number in each home, and 
known as forms, were very rudely constructed, 
being in reality stools or benches, fashioned after 
the English designs then in vogue. Later, these 
developed into the high-backed settles, which are 
so much used in a modified form to-day. 

By the middle of the seventeenth century, chairs 
had come into more common usage, the type then 
in favor being strong and solid of frame, with seat 
and back covered with durable leather or Turkey 
work. Generally, the legs and stretches were 
plain, though sometimes the legs and back posts 
were turned. 

Specimens of the turned variety, which are the 
first seats that really could be termed chairs, are 
very scarce to-day, the best examples being found 
at Pilgrim Hall at Plymouth, in the home of Hon. 
John D. Long at Hingham, Massachusetts, in 
the Heard house at Ipswich, Massachusetts, and 
in the Waters collection at Salem, where one 
specimen shows a covering which is a reproduc- 
tion, having been fashioned to exactly match in 
design and texture the original one it replaced 
when that one wore out. 

The year 1700 marked the introduction of the 


slat-back chair, which enjoyed a long period of 
popularity. The number of slats at the back, 
characteristic of this type, varied with the time of 
making, the first specimens showing but two, 
while later types showed five. These chairs were 
solid and strong of frame, and in Pennsylvania 
were made curved to fit the back, affording a com- 
fortable support. They included, in addition to 
ordinary chairs, armchairs, and it was to an arm- 
chair of this make that Benjamin Franklin affixed 
rockers, thus inventing the first American rocking- 
chair and inaugurating a fashion that has never 
waned in popularity. This first rocking-chair 
and its contemporaries, which did not antedate 
the Revolutionary War by any great number of 
years, had rockers that projected as far in the 
front as they did at the back, a peculiarity that 
makes them easily recognizable to-day. Later, 
this objection was remedied, and the present type 
of rocking-chair came into fashion. 

From 1710 to 1720 the banister-back chair was 
much used, though it never enjoyed equal favor 
with the slat-back type. Instead of the horizontal 
slats typical of the earlier model, the banister- 
back chair showed upright spindles, usually four 
in number, and generally flat, though sometimes 


rounded at the back. Its seat, like that of the 
slat back, was of rush, and it was fashioned of 
either hard or soft wood, and almost always painted 
black. One interesting example of this make is 
found at "Highfield," the ancestral home of the 
Adams family at Byfield, Massachusetts, having 
been brought here in the early days of the dwell- 
ing's erection by Anne Sewall Longfellow, who came 
here the bride of Abraham Adams, and who 
brought the chair herself from her old home across 
the fields that divided the two estates, so that no 
harm would befall it. It has been carefully treas- 
ured by her descendants, and to-day occupies its 
original resting place by the side of the wide old 
fireplace, where, on the night before the Battle 
of Bunker Hill, leaden bullets used in that historic 
encounter were cast. 

Slightly later than these types came the Dutch 
chair, sometimes severely plain in design, and 
again pierced and curiously carved. One excel- 
lent example of this model, formerly owned by 
Moll Pitcher, the famous soothsayer of Lynn, 
who told one's fate by the teacup at her home at 
High Rock, is now preserved in a Chestnut Street 
dwelling at Salem, and shows the straight legs 
and straight foot of the best class of the Dutch 



type, and the usual rush seat. Most Dutch speci- 
mens found their way to Dutch settlements, 
though many were brought to New England direct 
from northern Holland. 

Easy chairs which came into style not long after 
the slat-back model, proved the most comfortable 
type yet invented, and served as a welcome varia- 
tion from the straight and stiff-backed chairs up 
to that time in favor. They were stuffed at back 
and sides, and covered with patch or material of 
like nature. Owing to the amount of material 
which was used in stuffing and covering them, 
their cost was considerable, varying from one to 
five pounds, according to the style and quality 
of covering used. 

The most common and popular chairs of the 
eighteenth century were those of the Windsor 
type, manufactured in this country as early as 
1725, and deriving their name from the town in 
England where they originated. The story of their 
origin is most interesting. The reigning George 
of that day, the second of his name, saw in a shep- 
herd's cottage a chair which he greatly admired. 
He bought it to use as a model, thus setting the 
stamp of kingly approval on this type, and bring- 
ing it into immediate favor. It is not related what 

PLATE XXVI. Chippendale Arm Chair, showing straight, square 
legs; Chippendale Chair; Chippendale, one of a set of six, 

QnOWincr R rCRtf # r}#*cirrn f^liir*r*f>nrla !# Arm f^Koir ur>Vk 

PLATE XXVII. Empire Sofa; Cornucopia Sofa; Sofa in Adams 


color he had his chairs painted, but the general 
coloring employed was either black or dark green, 
though some chairs were not painted at all. The 
finish of the back of this type was varied to suit 
different fancies, some few having a comblike 
extension on top as a head-rest, while others had 
a curved or bowlike horizontal top piece, like 
a fan. These types originated the names comb 
back and fan back, by which Windsor chairs of 
these types are known. American manufacturers 
in general copied the English styles, though they 
also developed several variations. Many Ameri- 
can Windsors, particularly the fan backs, are 
equipped with rockers, the date of their manu- 
facture coming after the Revolution. 

But Windsor chairs, popular and fine as they 
were, by no means were the best type developed 
in this century, for this period marked a great 
change in the history of cabinet-making, resulting 
in the development of wonderful designs, exqui- 
sitely blended and finished. First on the list of 
the new master craftsmen was Chippendale, who 
in 1753 issued his first book of designs, and whose 
models were given first consideration for more than 
thirty years. Then, in 1789, followed Hepple- 
white, and two years later came Sheraton, while 



lesser lights, such as the Brothers Adam, Man- 
waring, Ince, and Mayhew, all contributed their, 
share to the betterment of chair manufacture. 

The chair seems to have been Chippendale's 
favorite piece of furniture, and in its design he 
has blended the finest points in French, Dutch, 
and Chinese patterns. His first chairs showed 
Dutch influence, and for these he used the cab- 
riole leg, greatly improving its curving, with the 
Dutch or ball-and-claw foot, the latter more fre- 
quently than the former. His chair seats were 
broad and flat, and in his backs he disregarded 
the usual Dutch types, his uprights generally 
joining the top at an angle, and his top piece being 
usually bow-shaped. His backs were a little 
broader at the top than at the bottom, and he used 
the central splat carved and pierced. 

Next, his chairs showed Louis the Fifteenth char- 
acteristics, notably in the splats, which were often 
handsomely carved and pierced. During this time 
he produced his ribbon-back chair, though his best 
chairs, showing this influence, were upholstered 
armchairs, with legs terminating in French scroll 
feet. Later, he introduced in his chairs Gothic 
and Chinese features, even though the backs still 
preserved the Dutch and French features. Fi- 


nally, the details of the several features became 
much mixed, and at length resulted in a predomi- 
nance of Chinese characteristics. Most of his 
chairs were done in mahogany, which was a favor- 
ite wood in his day, and his skill is especially 
displayed in the wonderful carving which is typi- 
cal of much of his work. Not only are his chairs 
excellently proportioned, but they are so sub- 
stantially built that even to-day, after more than 
one hundred and fifty years' usage, they show no 
sign of wear. 

Not a little of his work found its way to New 
England homes, many fine specimens at one time 
gracing the dwelling of "Lord" Timothy Dexter, 
Newburyport's eccentric character, who made his 
fortune by selling warming pans to the heathen, 
who used the covers for scooping sugar, and the 
pans for sirup. His home was filled with quan- 
tities of beautiful furniture, including many ex- 
cellent Chippendale chairs. 

Hepplewhite, the second of the master cabinet- 
makers, succeeded Chippendale in popular favor 
in 1789, and his furniture, while much lighter and 
consequently less durable than that of his prede- 
cessor, showed a beauty of form and a wealth 
of ornamentation that rendered it most artistic. 


He employed not only carving of the most delicate 
and exquisite nature, but inlay and painting as well, 
introducing japanning after the style of Vernis- 
Martin work. 

The shield or heart-shaped back is one of the 
characteristics of his chairs, though he also used 
oval backs and sometimes even square backs. 
They are all very graceful and delicate, with carved 
drapery, and many of the shield-shaped type show 
for decoration the three feathers of the Prince of 
Wales, Hepplewhite being one of the Prince's 
party when sentiment ran strong during the ill- 
ness of George III. Other decorations employed 
by him were the urn, husk and ear of wheat. The 
wood he generally used was mahogany, though oc- 
casionally he made use of painted satinwood. 

Following close upon the heels of Hepplewhite 
came Sheraton, the last of the three great masters 
in cabinet-work. His designs were delicate, but 
strong, and generally his chair backs were firmer 
than those of Hepplewhite. When he had ex- 
hausted other forms of decoration, he indulged his 
fancy for brilliant coloring, mixing it with both 
inlay and carving. Later he embellished his work 
with the white and gold of the French style, finally 
employing features of the Napoleonic period, such 


PLATE XXVIII. Sheraton, mahogany frame, about 1800; Sher- 
aton with solid arms and straight, slender legs; Sheraton, 

PLATE XXIX. Sheraton, about 1800-, Sofa, about 1820; Sofa, 
about 1820, winged legs. 


as brass mounts and brass inlay. His last seats 
show the influence of the Empire type, which came 
into vogue in the early days of the nineteenth 
century, and the curved piece which he brought 
in about 1800 served as a model for nearly a cen- 
tury, though it was not adorned with the brass 
mounts that he had intended. 

His greatest glory as a constructor lies in his 
skillful workmanship and his excellent choice of 
woods, satinwood, tulipwood, rosewood, apple- 
wood, and occasionally mahogany, being his 
selection ; and as a decorator in the color and 
arrangement of his marquetry, as well as in the 
fact that he never allowed consideration of orna- 
ment to affect his work as a whole. 

Among the chairs he fashioned was one that has 
come to be known in this country as the Martha 
Washington chair, from the fact that a specimen 
of this type was owned at Mount Vernon. Several 
excellent examples of his chairs are found at "Hey 
Bonnie Hall," in Bristol, Rhode Island, one of 
them being the chair in which John Adams is 
said to have died. 

Chairs of all types are found in any number of 
old-time homes, those in Salem being as represent- 
ative as any, for to this old seaport more than to 



any other, in proportion, rare furnishings were 
brought. Many of the pieces are of historic in- 
terest, such as the old-time chair of Flemish make, 
brought over in the ship Angel Gabriel, which 
was wrecked off the coast of Maine ; much of its 
cargo was recovered, including this old chair, 
which was later brought to Salem in another ship. 
Another fine old specimen is the armchair, for 
many years the prized possession of Hawthorne, 
and an heirloom in his family, which he presented 
to the Waters family, in whose possession it now 

With the passing of Sheraton, Empire models 
held full sway, and, while some of these were com- 
fortable and graceful, the majority were massive, 
stiff, and extreme in style. Early nineteenth-cen- 
tury chairs manufactured in America are of this 
type, some of them of rosewood, some of mahogany, 
and some painted, while many are of mahogany 

But while chairs were the most common seats 
in the colonies, they were not the only ones, for 
old-time homes were supplied with sofas as well. 
To be sure, these did not come into use until many 
years after the advent of the chair, the time of 
their appearance being about the year 1760; the 



majority shown are the work of the master cabinet- 
makers. Sheraton models are those most com- 
monly found here, though the earliest specimens 
are of Chippendale manufacture, excellent ex- 
amples of his work being still found, many of them 
characterized by Louis XV features. A special 
design of Chippendale's much in favor was "The 
Darby and Joan" sofa, in reality a double seat, 
which model, as well as many others that became 
very popular, was never shown in his catalogue. 

Sheraton sofas came in vogue about 1800, their 
graceful designs and handsome carving making 
them at once favorites. Many of these showed 
eight legs, though later, when his designs became 
heavier and more elaborate, only four legs were 
used. The coverings of these later specimens 
were generally haircloth, fastened with brass nails. 

The Brothers Adam also made some of the sofas 
found here, their designs showing a peculiar slant- 
ing or curved leg which is known as the Adam leg, 
and which is also characteristic of some of Shera- 
ton's pieces. 

About 1820 what was known as the Cornu- 
copia sofa came into style, the carving at the arms 
showing horns of plenty, which design was often 
repeated in the top-rail, while the hollow made by 


the curve of the decoration was filled with hard, 
round pillows, known as "squabs." Contem- 
poraneous with this type was the Empire sofa, with 
winged legs and claw feet, often covered with 
haircloth. One example of this model, exqui- 
sitely carved, is in the possession of a Salem family. 
But whatever their type or characteristic, the 
old-time chair and sofa are distinctive, and it is a 
tribute to their worth that in the equipment of 
modern homes designers are reverting to them for 
inspiration. Likewise it is with relief that we 
welcome them, after so long harboring the ugly 
monstrosities that followed in favor the Empire 




THE present interest in antiques has brought 
into prominence the old-time furnishings, and as 
a result ancient hiding places have been forced to 
give up their treasures, and hitherto little appre- 
ciated relics are now reinstated with all their original 
dignity. The architect of the twentieth century 
is responsible in a great measure for this, for in 
his zest to give to modern homes the best that could 
be afforded, he has seen fit to revert to early types 
for inspiration ; and with the revival in favor of 
these specimens, genuine antiques have come to 
be appreciated, and their value has correspond- 
ingly increased. 

Included among these old-time pieces are chests, 
which in early days did service for numerous 
purposes. In America they were first fashioned 
by workmen who came to this country from for- 
eign lands, through the efforts of the first governor, 
John Endicott, many of them being employed on 


plantations, where much of their work was done. 
These chests were made of the wood of forest trees, 
which then grew so plentifully, and are rude and 
simple in construction, in striking contrast to the 
rich, hand-carved, mahogany chests, which many 
of the colonists brought from the motherland, 
packed with their clothing, and which, later on, 
were shipped here in large numbers. Old inven- 
tories frequently mention both these types of 
chests, those manufactured here generally being 
spoken of as "owld pine chests." They were 
principally used in the chamber and at one side 
of the fireplace in the general room, the larger ones 
to hold family necessities, such as the homespun 
clothing and anything else that needed to be covered, 
while the smaller ones served as receptacles for 
the skeins of wool from which the handy house- 
wife fashioned the family wearing apparel. 

Such chests were an intimate part of the home 
life in those early times, and viewing their quaint- 
ness it is not hard to picture the scenes of which 
they were a part, when the house mother, in her 
homespun gown, busily spun at her old clock 
wheel, drawing the skeins from the chest at her 
side, while the little ones, seated on rude benches 
before the open fire, carefully filled the quills for 


the next day's supply. Mayhap the eldest daugh- 
ter fashioned on the big wheel, under her mother's 
guidance, her wedding garments, weaving into 
them loving thoughts of the groom-to-be, while the 
song in her heart kept time to the merry whirr of 
the wheel. 

Of the larger type of the "owld pine chest" is 
the treasured specimen at Georgetown, known for 
many generations as the magic chest, and so 
called from the feats it is said to have performed 
in the early days of its history, such as walking 
up and down stairs, and dancing a merry jig when 
a deacon sat upon its lid. It stands to-day quiet 
and demure, giving no hint of its former hilarious 
tendencies, though it is no longer used for its orig- 
inal purpose, the storing of meal for the family 

With the betterment of financial conditions, the 
rude pine chests went out of fashion, and in their 
stead beautiful hand-carved specimens were 
brought from foreign countries. Many of these 
show exquisite coloring, any number of examples 
being still preserved ; sometimes they were placed 
in the chamber, but more frequently on the land- 
ing at the head of the stairs. 

Chests with drawers were in fashion as early as 


1650, according to the old records, many of them 
handsomely carved, and all showing little egg- 
shaped pieces upon the drawers. Some of the 
finest of these old chests are shown in the Waters 
collection at Salem. Generally they were fash- 
ioned of oak, and a frequent characteristic was a 
lid on top which lifted off, allowing for the packing 
of large articles, while the drawers at the front 
were used for storing smaller things. Sometimes 
chests are found constructed on frames, but not 
often. This type was probably fashioned to hold 
linen, being the forerunner of the high chest of 
drawers which came into vogue in the later days 
of the seventeenth century. Up to some time after 
1700, chests continued in general use, though it is 
doubtful if they were made in any great quantity 
after 1720. The number of legs found on these 
chests varies with the time of making, some showing 
six, while others have but four. 

With the advent of the high chest of drawers, 
other woods than oak, such as walnut and cherry, 
and later mahogany, became popular; the use 
of these woods produced a marked change in chest 
designs, notably in the massiveness of build. 
Many specimens of both types are found through- 
out New England, one very fine example of the 
f io81 


early type showing the drop handle, which is a 
characteristic of the early chest, being included 
in the Nathaniel B. Mansfield collection. Another 
of the later type, now in the Pickering house, 
carefully stored away that no harm may befall it, 
shows on one side the initials of Colonel Timothy 
Pickering, who used it during his army days. 

Dressing tables were made to go with these 
chests, following the same lines of design, though 
constructed with four rather than six legs. These 
came to be designated as "lowboys" in distinc- 
tion from the chests mounted upon high legs, 
which were known as "highboys." Examples 
of both were found in the old General Abbot house 
at Salem, until a few years ago ; while a highboy, 
showing bandy legs, a characteristic of the earliest 
high chest, is a prized possession in the Benson 
home, also at Salem. 

Many highboys and lowboys .show inlay work, 
one of the former, of English manufacture, being 
found in the Warner house at Portsmouth, while 
another, of different style, is shown in the Osgood 
house at Salem. 

Lowboys were made to correspond with every 
style of the high chest, and frequently they were 
constructed of maple, beautifully marked, after 


the fashion of the chests made of walnut and 
cherry. Highboys sometimes took the form of a 
double chest, showing drawers extending almost 
to the floor, and mounted on varied-style feet, 
frequently of the claw-and-ball type. These, as well 
as lowboys, continued to be regularly used until 
well into the last quarter of the eighteenth century. 
Hepplewhite's book of designs, published in 1789, 
shows models for chests of drawers extending al- 
most to the floor, but it is not probable that they 
were made in any number after this date. 

The desk occupied a prominent place in New 
England homes in the early days of the col- 
onies, though not to the extent of the other and more 
necessary articles of furniture. It varied in size and 
design according to the period of its manufacture, 
the earliest type being little more than a box that 
locked, with flat or sloping top, and placed on the 
table when used. This type was often ornamented 
with rich carving, and sometimes it was arranged 
upon legs, with a shelf beneath. 

The form in common use about 1700 was known 
as the "scrutoir," being in reality a desk resting 
on a chest of drawers; the sloping front opened 
on hinges, and afforded a writing desk. One ex- 
ample of this type, fitted with ball feet, and show- 


ing secret drawers and many cupboards, is found 
in the Ropes house in Salem, being an inheritance 
from the original owner, General Israel Putnam. 
Another of equal interest is in the home of Mrs. 
Guerdon Howe at Haverhill. This originally 
belonged to Daniel Webster, who was at one time 
a law partner of Mr. Howe's grandfather. This 
desk, which was brought to the house after the 
death of Webster, is filled with old and interesting 

The earliest "scrutoirs" were of foreign manu- 
facture, chiefly English, but by 1710 they were 
being made in this country. These early Ameri- 
can "scrutoirs" are very plain in form, generally 
made of cherry, though occasionally one is found 
constructed of walnut. After the first quarter 
of the eighteenth century, American manufac- 
turers improved their output, and made some very 
handsome specimens of the type known as bureau 
desks. One excellent example of the very early 
bureau desk of foreign make is found in the pos- 
session of the Alden family, having been brought 
to this country in the Mayflower by John Alden 

By 1750 the desk in its various forms had come 
to be considered an important part of the house- 


hold equipment, and in their manufacture many 
woods were employed, such as mahogany, cherry, 
apple, and black walnut, sometimes solid, and some- 
times veneered. The following thirty years saw 
the advent of many new styles, two of which were 
more dominant than the rest; one of these was 
the development of the early "scrutoir," and the 
other the forerunner of the bookcase desk or sec- 

During this period Chippendale designed several 
desk models, the most notable of which was prob- 
ably his secretary, characterized by Chinese fret 
designs in the glass doors, and an ingenious ar- 
rangement of secret drawers. In 1790 Hepple- 
white followed with his designs, many of which 
were severe in contour, being wholly straight in 
front and arranged with two glass doors above, 
sometimes fancifully framed. Then Sheraton's 
desks and secretaries came into favor ; many of his 
models showed practical features and beautiful 
finish, and after 1793 were generally character- 
ized by inlay work, with the lower portion con- 
sisting of a cupboard instead of the usual drawers. 

During these latter days of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, beautiful secretaries were manufactured in 
this country, ranging in form from the very plain 


to the very elaborate, but after 1800, when some few 
French Empire desks found their way here, serv- 
ing as models for American manufacturers, the 
domestic output became less graceful, depending 
for beauty on the grain of the veneering used. 

Many of all these types of desks are found 
throughout New England, one particularly good 
specimen being shown in the Noyes house at 
Newburyport; This belongs to a period antedat- 
ing the Revolutionary War, and shows the oval 
which is characteristic of its type. Among its 
features are paneled doors one and one half inches 

Though the date of their introduction was not 
until well along in the eighteenth century, side- 
boards are prominent among the old-time furnish- 
ings, and in the highest state of their development 
they were articles of beauty and utility. In 
reality they are a development of the serving 
table, which came into vogue in the first half of the 
eighteenth century, and in form are a combina- 
tion of the serving table and its accompanying 
pieces. At first they were little more than un- 
wieldy, unattractive chests of drawers, gradually 
developing to their best form, with carved front, 
slender legs, and other details. In their con- 


struction, mahogany was chiefly used, inlaid with 
satinwood, holly, tulip, and maple, and veneered 
occasionally with walnut; and they showed in 
their finished lines the best work of the skilled 
craftsman. The last type of the old sideboard 
showed Empire characteristics, being more massive 
than graceful, but yet containing features of marked 

While Chippendale is often credited with having 
made sideboards, no record of this fact is found 
among his designs, though he makes frequent 
mention of several large tables, which he calls 
sideboard tables. No doubt, many of the side- 
boards credited to him were made by Shearer, a 
designer to whom belongs the credit of originating 
the sideboard, and who included in his designs 
pieces with curved and serpentine fronts, a style 
which was later perfected by Hepplewhite. There 
is no doubt that Hepplewhite made sideboards, 
for in his book of designs he shows a sideboard 
model, with a deep drawer at each end and a shal- 
low one in the center, as well as four different 
designs in the table form, without the drawers, 
which are similar to Chippendale's work. Hepple- 
white's sideboards are characterized by square 
legs, often ending in the spadefoot, the ends some- 


times square and sometimes round, the front 
swelled, straight, or curved, affording a great 
variety to his work. Generally his sideboards 
are made of mahogany, and almost invariably 
they are inlaid, though occasionally they show 

Sheraton also designed sideboards, and while 
in general appearance they somewhat resemble 
Hepplewhite's designs, in many respects they are 
superior. They were equipped with any number 
of devices, such as cellarets, closets for wine 
bottles, slides for the serving tray, and racks for 
plates and glasses, and many of them are lavishly 
ornamented with inlay work, though few show 

Examples of all these types are found in the col- 
onies, one of Hepplewhite design showing the 
fine inlay work and graceful proportions typical 
of his pieces and originally owned by Governor 
Wentworth, being in the possession of a Salem 
family. Another, of Sheraton make, is preserved 
in the Stark home, having been brought here from 
the Governor Pierce house at Hillsboro. Another 
of like make is found in the Howe house, having 
originally belonged to an ancestor of the present 
owner, Governor John Leverett, governor of 


Massachusetts during the time of King Philip's 

Shortly after 1800, the style of sideboard greatly 
changed, becoming more massive, with the body 
placed nearer the floor, and the legs shorter. 
French Empire styles influenced the manufac- 
ture in this country to a great extent, though carv- 
ing and the grain of the wood were still depended 
upon for ornament, rather than the French fea- 
tures. The best examples of this type are to-day 
found in the South; 1820-1830 saw the advent of 
a plainer model, being in reality an adaptation of 
one of Sheraton's types ; in the following years 
other variations were made, all showing the heavi- 
ness of the Empire style in a more or less degree, 
until about 1850, when the architectural merits 
of the sideboard disappeared. 

Intimately associated with the sideboard is the 
table which probably shows more variety in design 
than any of the other old-time furnishings. From 
the table board or top used in 1624, square, oval, 
or round in contour, evolved the butterfly table 
popular about 1700, many examples of which are 
found throughout Connecticut. These followed in 
form the outline of a butterfly, and were supported 
by pieces of wood shaped much like the rudder 

PLATE XXXVI. Dressing Table, 1760; Mahogany Commode, 
collection of Nathan C. Osgood, Esq. 

PLATE XXXVII. Sheraton Sideboard ; Simple form of Sheraton 
Sideboard, with line inlay around drawers and doors. Date 1800. 


of a ship. Other types popular here were the 
Dutch table, the hundred-legged table, the dish- 
top table, and the tea table. 

The first table used in this country was the 
table top, which was literally a board made sep- 
arate from its supports, which was taken off and 
placed at one side of the room after meals. This 
showed different forms, and was known by different 
names, one called the chair table, and so constructed 
that when not in use it served as a seat, being prob- 
ably the most unique. It was invariably fash- 
ioned with drawers. 

Included in the later designs were writing tables 
fashioned by Sheraton, showing elegant carving 
at the back, the most decorative of these, known 
as the "Kidney" based table, being used either 
for writing or as a lady's worktable. Another 
model of Sheraton's was a worktable known as 
the Pouch Table, arranged with a bag of drawn 
silk. These were often fitted with drawers and a 
sliding desk, which drew forward from beneath 
the table top. 

The dining table of this period showed the pillar 
and claw style with central leg fixed to a block, 
on which the table hinged. This principle re- 
ceived the support of the English people for many 


years, and Sheraton tables of this make had four 
claws to each pillar, and castors of brass. So 
much did Sheraton designs resemble those of 
French artisans that only close inspection will 
decide as to which cabinet-maker a certain piece 

Following this type came the telescopic table, 
showing extensions fitted through slides moving 
in grooved channels. 

Other later tables were card tables, which closed 
and could be stood against the wall when not in 
use, the pie-crust table of the Dutch style of make, 
and the table with scalloped moldings carved from 
solid pieces of wood, with legs terminating in 
claw-and-ball feet. Tables of Empire design often 
have brass feet and lyre supports, while others 
show the rope carving and acanthus leaf. 

Popular types of the later days of the eighteenth 
century were Pembroke tables, small and of orna- 
mental design, with inlaid tops and brackets to 
supply the two side flaps, as well as Pier tables, 
circular or serpentine in shape. 




AT no time since the days of the Renaissance 
has interest been so keen in interior decoration as 
it is at the present day, not only as regards the 
main living rooms of the home, but the sleeping 
apartments as well. This has resulted in a revival 
of old-time features, and the chamber fittings of 
the present in many cases are similar in type to 
those of early times, when purely classical designs 
were in vogue, models that have never been sur- 
passed in beauty by later designers, though many 
a fine piece of furniture has been made since then 
by expert cabinet-makers. 

Early specimens showed a delicacy of touch and 
a mastery of thought that gave to them a lasting 
place in the world of architecture, and while the 
coming historian may dilate upon twentieth-cen- 
tury models, he cannot make any comparison 
that will in any way be derogatory to these wonder- 
fully fine old pieces. In early days, labor was a 


very different problem from what it is to-day, 
years being often spent in the making of a single 
specimen of furniture, and, indeed, in some coun- 
tries, a workman has been known to have spent 
his whole life in the fashioning of a single piece. 

Taking these points into consideration, one can- 
not wonder that early century pieces are still as 
perfect as they were the day that they left the 
makers' hands, and it is with regret that he views 
the hurry and rush of modern times resulting in the 
practical abolition of hand carving, and the intro- 
duction of machinery that has helped in the deteri- 
oration of the art. Reproductions, as they are made 
to-day, while in many cases very beautiful, cannot 
equal in finish the originals fashioned at a time 
when art was the first consideration. 

Fortunately, many genuine antiques are still 
in existence, and present interest for the most 
part centers in their types and periods of manu- 
facture. With so many periods and so many 
makers, it is not surprising that mistakes in these 
respects are sometimes made, especially as regards 
the bedstead. For the best of these, one need not 
search farther back than the seventeenth century, 
for the most valuable specimens were made in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, many of 


these today bringing from two to three hundred 
dollars apiece. 

Of course, these fine beds were not the first beds 
used here, though no doubt the earlier types, as 
well as these later specimens, were imported from 
England, along with the other household furnish- 
ings. If any bedsteads were made here, they 
were undoubtedly simple and unpretentious, along 
the lines of the settle and board tables. 

The articles of furniture devised by people of 
different countries for comfort in sleep vary accord- 
ing to climate and the progress of civilization. The 
bed of our primeval ancestors consisted of dried 
mosses and leaves, with a canopy of waving leaves 
above. Later, through the need of shelter from 
the frost and protection from crawling insects, a 
rude structure consisting of a framework of poles, 
covered with branches, was substituted. Probably 
the first authentic representation of a bed is found 
on ancient Egyptian tombs, depicting a long, 
narrow receptacle, suited for but one person. 
Greek and Roman beds, representations of which 
have also been found, are of the single type, resem- 
bling in shape the Flemish couches made in the latter 
half of the seventeenth century, while the Greek 
thalamos, another type, showed a framework of 



great beauty, curiously carved, and decked with 
ivory, gold, silver, and precious stones. Roman 
luxury outvied that of Greece, as is shown by speci- 
mens that have been found in Pompeii, and the 
hangings of the bed, while receiving special atten- 
tion, seemed to be less highly prized than the frame, 
probably on account of the mildness of the climate. 

The eleventh century saw the half-savage people 
of northern Europe building beds into the walls 
of their rooms, and fitting them with doors and 
sliding panels to insure against the cold. These 
cupboard couches are reproduced in a modified 
form in many summer homes to-day, being ar- 
ranged like steamer berths. 

After the Norman Conquest, beds of this type 
came into favor in England, though they were 
quickly superseded by a great oaken bed with 
roofed-over top. This was arranged in the center 
of the room, and heavily curtained for protection 
against the wind that blew in through the cracks 
of the poorly hung doors and the unglazed windows, 
closed only by loosely fitted shutters. Many of 
these beds were of prodigious size, the most historic, 
"'The Great Bed of Ware" to which Shakespeare 
alludes, being twelve feet square, built of solid oak, 
and finished with the most elaborate carving im- 


aginable. This bed is known to have furnished 
sleeping accommodations for twelve persons at one 
time, and it has stood for nearly four centuries in 
an ancient inn, located in the town of Ware. In 
style, this is a four-poster, and doubtless marks 
the induction of this, the most expensive but the 
most popular bed of its day. 

Old-time four-posters consisted, as do those we 
see to-day, of four posts, supporting a tester, 
and connected laterally by sidepieces which were 
almost always undecorated, as the bedspread was 
supposed to fall over the sides of the bed and cover 
them. A headboard was considered almost in- 
dispensable, although it is absent in some cases. 
It was usually rather low and decorated with 
carving, more or less elaborate. The footboard 
was sometimes used, but was quite often omitted 
in the older specimens, and seems to have come into 
favor later on, as an additional detail. When the 
posts were lowered, the footboard rose into prom- 
inence, but this was not until after the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century had elapsed. 

Many of the beds had a canvas bottom, held in 
place either by iron rods or ropes, or sometimes by 
both. It was "sackcloth and ashes" at house- 
cleaning time in those days, for either kind required 


the united strength of several muscular arms to 
put it together. The hair mattress was unknown 
at that period, and in its place was used brown 
linen sacking filled with straw and buttoned at 
one side, so that the straw could be easily removed 
at any time. This formed the lower strata of the 
bed, and above it were laid innumerable feather 
beds, piled one above the other, so high that often 
steps were necessary assistants in getting into bed. 

In colonial homes, where bedrooms were fireless, 
curtains and hangings were important accessories 
of the bed to shield the sleeper from drafts. These 
were often made of linen, handspun by some mem- 
ber of the household, and while many were white, 
some were in colors. One of these, of blue and 
white homespun pattern, edged with hand-made 
ball fringe, has been in constant use for generations, 
and as yet shows not the slightest sign of wear. 
It is now owned by a fortunate Salem woman. 

Many of these hangings were made of chintz 
and hand-embroidered linen, and in homes of 
limited means they were also made of patch, 
following the style of the quilt. Blankets were 
likewise home-made, of handspun wool, adorned 
with roses in each corner, which gave them the 
name of rose blankets. A blue and white home- 









spun counterpane added the finishing touch, and 
often the hangings of the bed were of this same 
material, the curtains being drawn back loosely 
so that, on cold nights, they could be permitted 
to fall about the bed. Often both counterpane 
and hangings were finished with a hand-made 
netted fringe, varying in width from five to eight 

While beds were a scarcity in the rude homes of 
our early ancestors, still they were sometimes 
brought here from over the seas, as is proven 
from an account written by Rev. Robert Crowell 
in his History of Essex, in which he speaks of two 
bedrooms in Darius Cogswell's house. These 
were divided off from the main room by handsome 
curtains that were stretched the whole way across, 
and, in the bed reserved for visitors, the guests of 
the night lay inclosed with curtains to exclude the 
night air; these, when drawn in the morning, 
allowed one to peer through the cracks in the 
shrunken logs at the world outside. 

Most of our ancestors, however, were content 
with much simpler beds than this, for mere frames, 
with curtains and valances, were most frequently 
used, the beds stuffed with straw or feathers 
plucked from live geese, or poultry, and laid on 


the floor. Among these early types are "Cup- 
board" or "Presse" bedsteads, frequently men- 
tioned in the inventories from which we gather 
much of our information. These, when not in 
use, were fastened up against the wall, proving 
valuable space savers where space was limited. 
Bunks were another type of the early bed in use 
here, one specimen, used in early days for slaves 
who were in the family, being still shown at the 
Adams house at Byfield. 

Possibly the early settlers may have used a bed 
that is still in fashion among the Kentucky moun- 
taineers, known as "Wild Bill." This is a one- 
poster, rather than a four-poster, and occupies a 
corner of the loft in a log cabin. The side and 
end of the cabin serve for headboard and one side 
of the bed ; saplings nailed to the solitary post that 
runs from roof to flooring supply footboard and 
sidepiece ; springy poles, running crosswise, uphold 
the home-made straw mattress and feather bed. 
Doubtless the rest of the mountaineer who uses 
this is sweet, but to one unused to it, it seems a 
diabolical bed ! 

When life in the new country became easier, furni- 
ture of all kinds was brought here from England, 
much of it of the Queen Anne period. This com- 


prised, among other details, four-posters made of 
black walnut, this wood having superseded English 
oak in popular favor during the preceding reign of 
William and Mary. Panelings and moldings that 
had done duty during the Jacobean period were 
retained in all their splendor, and to these were 
added the new feature of the claw-and-ball foot. 
Our oldest beds belong to this period, unless we 
consider Presse bedsteads or Cupboard bedsteads, 
already spoken of, as real beds. The Dutch 
name for such contrivances was "slaw-bank," 
and they might be said to be the forerunner of the 
latter-day folding bed. 

Mahogany was first used in England in the year 
1720, and therefore it belongs to the Georgian 
period. Four-posters of this material, as con- 
structed in the early days of their popularity, had 
slender and delicate posts, which were sometimes 
fluted and sometimes carved. In these earlier 
specimens the headboards were simply made and 
left undecorated. At this time great advance in 
the designing of furniture was made, for cabinet- 
makers published books of designs, and Chippen- 
dale, who was doubtless the greatest English 
exponent of his craft, designed beds with footpieces 
and sidepieces, carefully paneled and carved. He 
[ 127 1 


used tall and slender posts, and carving of the 
most elaborate nature. Genuine Chippendale beds 
are rare in America, and they are not common in 
England, seeming almost as if he had executed 
this piece of furniture less frequently than any 
other. We have, however, beautiful specimens 
which were modeled after Chippendale designs. 

In English furniture making, the brothers Adam 
held the supremacy from 1775 until the end of the 
century. They endeavored to restore the simply 
classical styles of Greece and Rome, with Greek 
ornamental figures, such as the acanthus, urns, 
shells, rosettes, and female heads. They made a 
smaller bed than the Chippendale pattern, with 
lower posts and less abundant carving. 

Hepplewhite's influence culminated some ten 
years later than that of the brothers Adam. He 
designed four-posters of attractive delicacy, used 
carved rosettes and a delicately carved beading 
by way of decoration, and delighted to place an 
urn-shaped section, lightly festooned with drapery, 
on the post where the sidepiece joins the standard. 

Sheraton was the last of the noted cabinet-makers 

of the Georgian period, commencing to publish 

his designs in 1790. They were distinguished for 

the use of inlaid work, and later on he developed 



painted designs. In his work he introduced many 
light woods, such as whitewood, satinwood, and 
sycamore, which, when painted green, was termed 
harewood. The trend of sentiment at that time 
seemed to be toward simplicity and delicacy. 

The last great change in the old four-poster was 
made, curiously enough, in deference to Napoleon, 
for it was through his influence that ancient Roman 
decorations, such as the laurel wreath and the 
torch, were revived. England had her mental 
reservations regarding this type, however, and by 
the time the fashion reached America it simply 
lowered the bedposts. It was the beginning of the 
end, however, and forty years later came the Renais- 
sance of black walnut, and with it the relegation 
of the old four-posters to attic and storehouse, 
or else to the chopping block. Saddest of all, 
their owners were glad to see them go, on account 
of the difficulty of putting them together. In 
the revival of colonial fittings, the four-poster 
has again been restored to favor, and in many 
modern homes the old four-poster is the chamber's 
most pleasing feature. 

There are some wonderfully fine old four-posters 
in America. One of these, in the Howe house 
at Haverhill, showing slender posts, surmounted 


by the ball and eagle, is made of brass. Originally' 
it belonged to the first owner of the dwelling, 
Dr. Nathaniel Saltonstall, a contemporary of 
George Washington, and a descendant of Sir 
Richard Saltonstall. It has never been out of the 
family since its importation, the present owner 
being the widow of the first owner's great-grand- 

Historic through the fact that it once graced 
the chamber of Oliver Wendell Holmes is the ex- 
quisite four-poster now in a Salem house. This 
is characterized by a richness of design that is most 
attractive, and the hangings are in keeping with 
the exquisiteness of the whole. In this same dwell- 
ing is another old poster, this time of the low type, 
that came into vogue about 1825. This shows but 
little of the carving that is a feature of the older 

Other fine old four-posters can be found in Salem. 
One is of Hepplewhite make, showing the slender 
posts and fluting of his type, while another is con- 
sidered one of the best specimens in New Eng- 
land, with a drapery of patch that is probably all 
of a hundred years old. 

At Dunbarton, New Hampshire, in the old 
Stark mansion, is a fine example of the Field bed- 


stead, standing exactly as it did when Lafayette 
occupied it so many years ago, and still known by 
the name then given to it, the Lafayette bed. 

In the Middleton house at Bristol is a most 
interesting four-poster, done in white, the gift to 
a bride of long ago. Lately this has been repainted 
exactly as it was when first placed in the house, 
the design depicted, that of the bow and arrow, 
showing as clear and dainty as when first traced. In 
another chamber in this same old home is another 
four-poster that was brought direct from Leghorn. 
Both of these rare specimens have been in the 
family since the building of the homestead. 

Examples of these fine old beds are growing scarcer 
and rarer each year, and their value is correspond- 
ingly increasing. Some years ago they could be 
had almost for the asking, but with their revival 
in favor, their worth has increased. They depict 
an era that is associated with the best in the 
way of design and craftsmanship, and not a few 
of them have historic associations that render 
them particularly notable. 



THE heavily freighted ships that came into the 
harbor in the days of Salem's commercial prosperity 
brought in their holds many valuables, including 
mirrors, several of which are to-day found in 
Salem homes. Not a few of these are ancestral 
heirlooms, closely interlinked with interesting 
family histories, and their depths have reflected the 
faces of many old-time belles. 

Even in the earliest days of the colonies, mirrors 
formed a part of the household accessories, for our 
Puritan ancestors, scorning as they did all pretence 
of personal vanity, did not forbear to glimpse 
their appearance before they wended their way to 
service on Sabbath morn. Proof positive of their 
use at this time is to-day in existence in the form 
of inventories that list the prices and tell odd, 
descriptive stories concerning them, as, for instance, 
a record of 1684 tnat speaks of "a large looking- 
glass and brasses valued at two pounds, five 


The origin of the mirror is shrouded in mystery 
and the time of its invention uncertain, but there is 
no doubt that rude reflectors were made to serve 
the purpose in South Europe and Asia, at least three 
hundred years before the Christian Era. These 
were made of metal, varied in shape, and they were 
considered necessary toilet accessories. All were 
highly polished, and several showed handles elabo- 
rately wrought. 

Small mirrors of polished iron or bronze were 
used by the early Chinese, who wore them as 
ornaments at their girdles, attached to a cord that 
held the handle or knob. Who knows but these 
may have been forerunners of the "vanity case" 
in use to-day ! 

Small circular placques of polished metal known 
as pocket and hand mirrors came into vogue 
between the twelfth and the fifteenth centuries. 
These, too, were worn at the girdle, and placed 
in shallow boxes covered with a lid. The cases 
were of ivory, beautifully carved with representa- 
tions of love, romance, and, less frequently, of the 

Looking-glasses when first used were fastened 
to the wall like panels, but in the fifteenth century 
they became movable. These earlier mirrors show 


a great variety of shapes, and were made of differ- 
ent kinds of polished metal. 

The Venetians undoubtedly made the first look- 
ing-glasses, having been the ones to discover the 
art of coating plates of glass with an amalgam of 
tin foil and mercury. For over a century they 
guarded their secret well, and it was not until 
1670 that the art became known in England 
through the keenness of an Englishman named 

Salem merchants sent their ships to Venetian 
ports, and an occasional mirror of this make is 
found here. One of these is owned in Salem. 
It is about a foot and a half in length, its frame of 
gilt surmounted by a cornice and gilt pineapple, 
with claw feet. 

The introduction of glass mirrors gave rise to a 
new industry, the making of mirror frames. In 
this occupation, cabinet-makers found a new vent 
for their skill, since by far the larger number of 
frames were made of wood. Of course, there were 
a few odd frames made, such as those of glass 
fitted together at the joints with gilt molding, 
but the majority were of wood. The different 
styles are characteristic of certain periods or de- 
signers, and it is upon the frame rather than upon 



the glass that one must rely for value, as well as 
for date of manufacture. 

Previous to the Revolution, the colonists manu- 
factured little furniture, and were dependent upon 
England, Holland, Spain, and France for their house 
furnishings, including mirrors. Many beautiful 
specimens thus found their way here, and many are 
still to be found in colonial homes. One such is 
owned in Salem. This is a Bilboa glass, an es- 
pecially fine type, one of several still preserved in 
New England, principally in Marblehead. There 
is a popular legend that these old glasses were 
brought from the Bay of Biscay by sailors for 
sweethearts at home, though some authorities 
insist that they were imported from Italy and paid 
for with dried fish. However this may be, they are 
certainly excellent illustrations of the early crafts- 
men's skill. 

The distinctive feature of the Bilboa glass is a 
column of salmon-colored marble on either side 
of the gilt frame. This marble is glued or cemented 
in small sections to the wood, and in some cases 
strips of marble form the border around the frame. 
It is ornamented on top by a broken arch sur- 
mounted by an urn. Grotesque and grinning 
heads top the columns, and a narrow bead molding 


surrounds the glass and decorates the lower part 
in scroll design. 

The earliest type of looking-glasses came into 
vogue in the first half of the eighteenth century, 
during the reign of Queen Anne of England. The 
frames of simple wood gave little hint of the extrav- 
agant decorations that were to follow, the only 
ornamentation being gilded wooden figures and 
squat urns, which were occasionally used. 

Owing to the extreme difficulty of making large 
pieces of glass, and also because it was not deemed 
prudent to waste the smaller pieces, many of the 
Queen Anne mirrors were made of two pieces of 
glass arranged so that one plate overlapped the 
other. Later, these parts were joined by strips of 
gilt molding. Several of these mirrors are still 
in existence, one of the earlier type being owned by 
Mrs. Walter L. Harris of Salem, showing a simple 
glass with gilt figure ornament. 

One of the finest mirror designers was Chippen- 
dale, who wrought out Chinese patterns, his 
schemes showing a wonderful weaving of birds, 
flowers, animals, and even human beings. One 
design, typical of his work, shows a flat wooden 
frame cut in graceful arches, with a gilded eagle 
perched on top with outspread wings. Gilt rosettes 


and flowers, as well as ornaments strung on wire, 
were frequently used by him , and are considered 
characteristic of his type. 

It was customary for the frames to rest on a pair 
of mirror knobs, which were fitted to the lower 
edge of the frame and screwed firmly to the wall. 
These knobs were often made of brass, but the 
most fashionable ones were of copper overlaid with 
Battersea enamel, and framed in rings of brass. 
Among the most quaint designs which were 
carried out on these mirror knobs were heads of 
prominent persons such as Washington, Lafayette, 
and Lord Nelson. Bright- colored flowers and 
landscapes, the American eagle, and the thirteen 
stars, representing the original colonies, were also 
frequently used, as were the queer designs of the 
funeral urn and weeping willow, that seemed to 
especially appeal to our ancestors' taste. 

By the year 1780 American mirror manufacturers 
had evolved a style peculiarly their own, and the 
glasses made at that time were known as Con- 
stitution mirrors. The frames were not unusual 
in design, generally being made of wood, in more 
or less elaborate shapes, but they were original in 
their decoration, especially in their tops. These 
generally were graced by the American eagle, the 


newly chosen emblem of the Republic, executed 
either in plaster covered with gilt, or in wood. 
A good example of the Constitution type is shown 
in the Lord house at Newton. The top shows the 
usual eagle decoration, though the cornice is over- 
hanging, fixing the date of manufacture early 
in the nineteenth century. This mirror is espe- 
cially historic, having belonged to the brilliant 
Revolutionary hero, Henry Knox, General Wash- 
ington's most intimate friend. 

Another handsome mirror of the same period 
is one that was originally in the Harrod mansion 
at Newburyport. It was one of the few things 
saved when the house was burned at the time of 
the great fire in 1812. This mirror now hangs 
in the home of a lineal descendant of the Harrod 
family in Salem. It is in perfect condition, and 
shows the eagle top and draped sides. 

The overhanging cornice came into vogue early 
in the nineteenth century. A mirror characteristic 
of this date is shown in the living room at "High- 
field," the Byfield home of the Adams family, built 
by Abraham Adams in 1703. It has a gilt frame of 
the ordinary picture type, and on account of its 
association is most interesting. 

A specimen of the same period is shown in the 


Lord house at Newton. This is decorated with the 
figure of a goddess sitting in a chariot drawn by 
two rams. The frame is of fine mahogany, with 
handsomely carved columns, simply ornamented. 

Other types of mirrors popular in the days of 
our forefathers were the mantel mirrors that 
came into favor early in the eighteenth century, 
first in England and later in America. Their 
greatest period of popularity was from 1760 until 
the commencement of the nineteenth century. 
Many of these glasses were oval in shape, though 
the majority consisted of three panels of glass sepa- 
rated only by narrow moldings of wood. This 
style was probably originated by some economical 
cabinet-maker who, in order to avoid the heavy 
expense which the purchase of large plates in- 
volved, designed these. They were most favorably 
received upon their introduction, and many of the 
old glasses to be found at the present day are of 
this style. 

One of the most valuable of these three-piece 
mantel glasses is that in the drawing-room of the 
Fierce-Nichols house on Federal Street at Salem, 
the frame of which has attracted the attention of 
antiquarians all over the country. It was made 
for a bride, who in 1783 came to be mistress of 


this old home, and it shows a finish of gold and 
white harmonizing admirably with the surrounding 
white woodwork, exquisitely carved by Samuel 
Mclntyre, the noted wood-carver. Its principal 
features are slender, fluted columns twined with 
garlands, which fancy is repeated in the decorations 
of the capitals. Above the glass are two narrow 
panels, one of white ornamented with gilt, and the 
other of latticework over white. Just beneath the 
overhang of the cornice is a row of gilt balls, a 
form of decoration that came into style during the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, and which 
continued to characterize a certain class of mirrors 
for several decades. 

Late in the nineteenth century mirrors known as 
bull's-eyes and girandoles came into vogue. These 
were circular in form, the glass usually convex, and 
they were made by Chippendale, the Adam 
Brothers, and others. The fact of their being con- 
vex rendered them impractical for common use, 
though it allowed for elaborate framing, and they 
were employed rather for ornament than for use. 
Looking up the old definition, we find these glasses 
alone have the right to be called mirrors, and that 
all else save "circular convex" should, properly 
speaking, be termed looking-glasses. 


One good example of this type was in the George 
house at Rowley, Massachusetts, now demolished. 
It showed a heavy gilt frame, surmounted by an 

Originally, there were shown in Hamilton Hall, 
at Salem, two fine examples of girandoles, with glass 
pendants, which in the midst of lighted candles 
reflected myriad sparkles. Interesting, indeed, 
would be the tales they could tell of fair ladies 
in powder and patches, and courtly gallants who 
in the long ago gathered in this famous hall to 
tread the measures of the minuet ! These giran- 
doles were the gift of Mr. Cabot, and they are now 
replaced by simpler examples, the originals having 
been given to the Saltonstall family, in whose 
possession they still are. 

Of the late colonial looking-glasses, there are 
two general types, the earlier dating back to about 
1810 and characterized by an overhanging cornice, 
beneath which pendant balls or acorns are fre- 
quently found, with frames of wood carved and 
gilded, or painted. Further decoration is found in 
a panel beneath the cornice ornamented with 
various designs, such as a horn of plenty, floral 
subjects, or classical scenes. 

In the later type, the cornice has disappeared, 


and the frame as a rule is more simply ornamented. 
The upper panel, however, has been retained, and 
almost invariably it shows a painting of some sort. 
Until within a comparatively few years, it was not 
a difficult matter to secure mirrors of this type, but 
the recent fad for collecting old furniture has caused 
many of the best specimens to be purchased, and, 
in consequence, really good colonial mirrors are 
rapidly becoming scarce, and one is a treasured 

The Kittredge house at North Andover, Massa- 
chusetts, shows several fine examples of this later 
type, and other examples are to be found in the 
Lord house at Newton, and in several Salem 
residences. These show a great variety of panels, 
ranging from pastoral scenes to horns of' plenty, 
and from ships to simple baskets of flowers. 

It is interesting to note, in connection with 
these old-time mirrors, the influence of the period 
reflected in the framing, and also how graphically 
the frame depicts the social life of its date of manu- 
facture, and the country in which it was designed. 
There is a marked flamboyancy in the Venetian de- 
signs of the early eighteenth century, changed in 
the middle of the same century to a heavy splendor 
and inartistic grandeur. England, slightly earlier, 


gave examples of fruit which many think were 
designed by Gibbon, but which materially lack the 
freedom of his work. 

Scrolls and angles, arabesques and medallions, be- 
long to the second half of the eighteenth century. 
Many such came to New England, and one of these 
mirrors is still seen in a Salem home. Its decora- 
tions hint of the influence of the Renaissance, and 
it shows medallions decorated with grotesque fig- 
ures on either side of the upper panel. 

Perhaps as interesting as any of the old mirrors 
is the Lafayette mirror, one excellent example of 
which is seen in the Osgood house at Salem. 
This is small in size, surmounted with a painting of 
Lafayette, and is one of a great number designed 
in compliment to the beloved Frenchman's visit 
to Salem in 1784. It is known as the Courtney 

Many of the fine old specimens to be seen in 
Salem were brought to New England at the time 
of the old seaport town's commercial glory, about 
the period of the Revolution, and previous to the 
restrictions following the War of 1812. These 
were halcyon days in Salem, "before the great 
tide of East India trade had ebbed away, leaving 
Derby Street stranded, its great wharves given over 


to rats and the slow lap of the water among the 
dull green piles." 

Probably there are few of these old-time mirrors 
but have been connected with interesting traditions 
and events, and it seems a pity that their histories 
have never been compiled, but have been allowed 
to pass unrecorded, leaving the imagination to 
conjure up scenes of joy and sorrow that have 
been reflected in their depths. Still, for all their 
unwritten stories each and every one possesses 
a glamor of mystery that makes the work of col- 
lecting them most fascinating. The personal note 
so prevalent in nearly all workmanship of past 
centuries is particularly noticeable in the looking- 
glass, and perhaps it is this very attribute more 
than anything else that lends so great a degree 
of charm and attractiveness to them. 




THERE is something quaintly pathetic about an 
old colonial clock. Its sociability appeals to all 
home lovers, as it cheerily ticks the hours away, 
with a regularity that is almost human. 

The first clocks, if so they might be called, 
were composed of two bowls connected by an 
opening through which water trickled, drop by 
drop, from one to the other. Next came a simple 
contrivance consisting of a greased wick tied into 
knots. The smoldering of the lighted wick 
determined the flight of time. 

The first clock, which was made in 807, was 
given as a present to the Emperor Claudius. It 
was a small clock of bronze inlaid with gold, and 
was fitted with twelve small doors. Each one of 
these opened at a given time, and allowed tiny 
balls to roll out, differing in number according to 
the hour represented. Promptly at the strike of 
twelve, toy horsemen came prancing out, and 
closed every open door. This was a marvel of 


clock-making that attracted a great deal of atten- 

In 1335, a monk, Peter Lightfoot by name, 
constructed a wonderful clock, which he presented 
to Glastonbury Abbey. During the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries, many and varied kinds of 
clocks were made, and we are assured that this 
was a successful venture, even in the early ages, 
from the fact that in 1500 a clock-makers' union 
was formed. 

To one who is interested in the history of clocks, 
there is no better place to view them than in 
Europe, where the most skilled clock-makers lived 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 
Marseilles, Exeter, and Westminster Abbey are 
the homes of some of the most wonderful clocks 
in the world. 

Some of the most beautiful of these were made 
by Chippendale and Sheraton, the former manu- 
facturing specimens that stood nine feet high and 
measured twenty-five inches across. On the door 
was placed a reliable thermometer, while on the 
inner circle, the signs of the Zodiac were marked, 
the outer circle showing the movable features by 
means of a sliding ring. 

The manufacture of clocks in America began 


early in the eighteenth century. Among the 
earliest clock-makers was one Benjamin Bagnall, 
who learned his trade in England and settled in 
Boston in 1712. A record of a meeting of the 
selectmen of the town on August 13, 1717, reads : 
"that Mr. Joseph Wadsworth, William Welstead, 
Esq., and Habijah Savage, Esq., be desired to 
treat with Mr. Benjamin Bagnall about making 
a Town Clock," and according to the record in 
September of that year he was paid for it. 

The earliest Bagnall clock on record is of the 
pendulum type, in a tall case of pine; on the 
inside of the lower door was written : "This clock 
put up January 10, 1722." Another, very similar 
to this type, belongs to the New England His- 
torical Genealogical Society of Boston. The case, 
though plain, is handsome and unusual, being 
made of solid black walnut. Most of the cases, 
however, were made of pine, veneered. The use 
of this wood was characteristic of old American- 
made cases, while those of old English make were 
veneered on oak. 

A particularly fine Bagnall clock is in the Hos- 
mer collection at Hartford, Connecticut. It is a 
black walnut veneer on pine. A peculiarity of 
the Bagnall make is the small dial, only twelve 



inches square. Above the dial is an arched ex- 
tension, silvered and engraved with the name of 
the maker. Samuel B agnail, son of Benjamin, 
has left a few good clocks, thought to be equal to 
the work of his father. 

The clocks of Enos Doolittle, another colonial 
maker, are not numerous enough to give him a 
prominent place among the great manufacturers. 
Nevertheless, he deserves much praise for the few 
good clocks which he has left behind. One of 
them is at Hartford, Doolittle's native town. 
The case is of beautifully carved cherry, orna- 
mented with pilasters on the sides of the case and 
face; the top of the case is richly ornamented 
with scrolls and carvings. A circular plate above 
the dial has the legend "Enos Doolittle, Hartford." 

There were many small clock-makers in colonial 
days, one, we might say, in every town, who left 
a few examples of their work; but none of them 
left the number or quality produced by the great 
clock-makers, the Willards. Benjamin Willard, 
who had shops in Boston, Roxbury, and Grafton, 
made a specialty of the musical clock, which he 
advertised as playing a tune a day and a psalm 
tune on Sundays. Aaron Willard, a brother, 
made tall, striking clocks. One of his produc- 


tions, owned by Dr. G. Faulkner of Boston, has 
run for over one hundred and twenty years. On 
the inside of the case is written : "The first short 
timepiece made in America, 1784." It is a de- 
parture from the ordinary Aaron Willard clock, 
because it is so short. The case of mahogany 
stands only twenty-six inches high; and there 
are scroll feet, turning back. A separate upper 
part, with ogre feet, which can be lifted off, con- 
tains the movements. Simon Willard, another 
brother, in 1802 patented the "Improved time- 
piece " which later was known as the " banjo " 
because of its resemblance in shape to that in- 
strument. The "banjo" which Willard manu- 
factured had a convex glass door over the face, a 
slim waist with brass ornaments running parallel 
to the curve of the box, and a rectangular base, 
which was sometimes built with legs for a shelf, 
sometimes with an ornamental bracket on the 
bottom, in which case the clock was intended for 
the wall. The construction of these clocks was 
simple; the works were of brass, and capable of 
running eight or nine days. There was no strike, 
but this clock was a favorite, because of its 

Hardly less famous than the Willards was Eli 


Terry, born April, 1773, in East Windsor, Con- 
necticut. Before he was twenty-one, he was 
recognized as having unusual ingenuity at clock- 
making. He had learned the trade from Thomas 
Harland, a well-known clock-maker of the times, 
had constructed a few old-fashioned hanging 
clocks and sold them in his own town. He moved 
to Plymouth and continued to make clocks, work- 
ing alone till 1800, when he hired a few assistants. 
He would start about a dozen movements at a 
time, cutting the wheels and teeth with saw and 
jack-knife. Each year he made a few trips through 
the surrounding country, carrying three or four 
clock movements which he sold for about twenty- 
five dollars apiece. 

Felt tells in his annals that "in 1770, Joseph 
Hiller moved from Boston to Salem and took a 
shop opposite the courthouse on the exchange." 
Later on, in 1789, we learn that Samuel Mullikin 
made an agreement to barter clocks for both 
English and West Indies goods, and also in ex- 
change for country produce. So popular did 
they become that we learn that in 1844 there were 
in Salem ten clock-makers and eleven jewelers 
all working at this trade. 

While the colonists still imported many of their 


clocks, yet in 1800 clock-making had become such 
a thriving industry that wooden cases were con- 
stantly being made, the manufacture of the works 
being a separate field. 

One of the most interesting is a tall grandfather's 
clock, showing the moon above the face, at the 
Stark house in Dunbarton. This clock formerly 
stood in the old Governor Pierce mansion at Hills- 
boro. It is very handsome, showing fine inlaid 
work on the case. 

Varied in shape and size were the numerous 
clocks which were found in colonial homes in New 
England. They ranged from the tall grandfather's 
clock to the smaller wall and bracket pieces. One 
kind that was in use, though rarely seen to-day, 
is the table clock, a type highly prized by the 
colonists, and recorded as a fine timekeeper. 

By the early nineteenth century we find the 
making of American clocks had become so uni- 
versal that they were to be found not only in 
many New England houses, but throughout the 
South and Middle states as well. Many of the 
rarest and oldest were at the plantation manors 
of Virginia and Kentucky as well as in New 

There are to-day in many houses colonial 


clocks valued not only for their worth, but for 
association's sake. One of these is in the home 
of Mr. John Albree at Swampscott, Massachu- 
setts. It is considered one of the oldest of its 
kind in the United States, and was brought from 
England in the year 1635 by one John Albree, 
and has been in the family ever since. It is known 
as the weaver's clock, and has one hand only. 
These clocks are very rare, only a very few being 
known of. 

Singularly enough, few people, even those who 
are the most interested in clocks and their making, 
know much about their early history and con- 
struction. The purchase of a clock at the present 
time means not only the case, but the entire works 
as well. It was, however, far different in the early 
days, at least while the tall clocks were so popu- 
lar. Transportation was difficult, so the clock 
peddlers contented themselves by slinging half a 
dozen clock movements over the saddle and start- 
ing out to find purchasers. After the works were 
purchased, and the family felt they had twenty 
pounds to spare, they called in a local cabinet- 
maker, and often the whole of the amount went 
into the making of the case. Naturally, a certain- 
shaped case was made to fit a certain movement, 


so that definite types of clocks were found, but it 
must be remembered that the case gave no indi- 
cation of the period of the maker of the movements. 

One of the first types of clocks made in America 
was the wall clock. This was set on a shelf 
through which slits were cut for the pendulum 
and weight cords to fall. These were known as 
"lantern," "bird cage," or "wag-at-the-wall," later 
replaced by the more imposing "Grandfather," 
which served a double duty as timekeeper and as 
one of the "show pieces" of furniture. 

The first known Terry clock was made in 1792. 
It was built with a long, handsome case and with 
a silver-plated dial, engraved with Terry's name. 
This clock, just as it was when Eli Terry set it 
going for the first time with all the pride which 
he must have had in his first accomplishment, is 
now in the possession of the Terry family. 

There was an interesting clock of this type in 
the General Stephen Abbot house on Federal 
Street, Salem, and another is still in the possession 
of Mr. Henry Mills of Saugus, Massachusetts. 

Terry introduced a patent shelf clock, with a 

short case. This made the clock much more 

marketable, because it was short enough to allow 

of easy transportation and at the same time 



offered the inducement of a well-made and in- 
expensive case. 

The patent shelf clock was a surprise to the 
rivals of Terry, because this change in construc- 
tion had produced an absolutely new and im- 
proved model, an unheard-of thing in clock 
making. The conservatism before shown by the 
colonial makers had stunted the growth of clock 
improvements in many ways, hence Terry's new 
invention produced a sensation. 

The change was such as to allow the play of 
weights on each side and the whole length of the 
case. The placing of the pendulum, crown wheel, 
and verge in front of the wheels, and between the 
dial and the movement, was another space-saving 
device, as was also the changing of the dial wheels 
from the outside to the inside of the movement 
plates. The escapement was transferred by hang- 
ing the verge on a steel pin, instead of on a long, 
heavy shaft inside the plates. This allowed the 
clock to be fastened to the case in back, making 
the pendulum accessible by removing only the 
dial. Thus Terry fairly revolutionized small- 
clock making, by introducing a new form, more 
compact, more serviceable, and cheaper than any 
of the older makes. 



In 1807 Terry bought an old mill in Plymouth 
and fitted it up so as to make his clocks by ma- 
chinery. About this time several Waterbury men 
associated themselves to supply Terry with the 
materials, if he would make the clocks. With this 
steady income from machine-made clocks, and 
the profits from extra sales, he made, in a very 
short time, what was then considered quite a 

In 1808 he started five hundred clocks at once, 
an undertaking which was considered foolhardy. 
People argued that there weren't enough people in 
the colonies to buy so many clocks, but neverthe- 
less the clocks sold rapidly. In 1810 Terry sold 
out to Seth Thomas and Silas Hoadley, two of 
his head workmen. The new company was a 
leader in colonial clock manufacturing for a num- 
ber of years, until competition brought the prices 
of clocks down to five and ten dollars. 

All these years Terry had been experimenting, 
and in 1814 he introduced his pillar scroll top 
case. This upset the clock trade to such an 
extent that the old-fashioned hanging, wooden 
clocks, which hitherto had been the leading type, 
were forced out of existence. The shape of the 
scroll top case is rectangular, the case, with 


small feet and top, standing about twenty-five 
inches high. On the front edges of the case are 
pillars, twenty-one inches long, three quarters of 
an inch in diameter at the base, and three eighths 
at the top, having, as a rule, square bases. The 
dial, which takes up a half or more of the whole 
front, is eleven inches square, while below is a 
tablet about seven by eleven inches. The dial 
is not over-ornamental and has suitable spandrels 
in the corners. The scroll top is found plain as 
well as highly carved, but always the idea of the 
scroll is present. 

Terry sold the right to manufacture the clock 
to Seth Thomas for a thousand dollars. At first 
they each made about six thousand clocks a year, 
but later increased the output to twelve thousand. 
The clocks were great favorites and sold easily for 
fifteen dollars each. 

Another conservatism of the colonial clock- 
makers was the sharp division which they made 
between the use of wood and brass in the manu- 
facture of the movements. The one-day clocks 
were made of wood throughout, and this pre- 
vented their use on water Or even their exporta- 
tion, because the works would swell in the damp- 
ness and render the clock useless. The eight-day 
[ 156 ] 


clocks were made of brass, but the extra cost of 
the movements sufficient to make the clock run 
eight days excluded many people, who had to re- 
main content with the one-day clock. 

It was not till 1837 that it occurred to any of 
these ingenious makers of timepieces to produce 
a one-day clock out of brass. To Chauncey 
Jerome, the first exporter of clocks from America 
to England in the year 1824, the honor was re- 
served of applying the principle of the cheap wire 
pinion to the brass, one-day clock. Thus began 
the revolution of American clock manufacturing, 
which has placed this country before all the world 
as a leader in cheap and accurate watch and clock 

"The whirr and bustle of hundreds of factories 
of to-day, which manufacture watches and clocks 
at an output of thousands per year, is a strong 
contrast to the slow and laborious construction of 
the old colonial clocks. And not only is there a 
contrast in their manufacture, but when one 
compares the finished products of the year 1700 
and 1900 side by side, one is conscious of con- 
flicting emotions. There is naturally a decided 
feeling of admiration for the artistically designed 
timepiece of the twentieth century on the one 



hand, and, on the other, an irresistibly sentimental 
sensation when standing before a dignified, an- 
cient, tall clock, on the door of which one reads : 

" I am old and worn as my face appears, 
For I have walked on time for a hundred years, 
Many have fallen since my race began, 
Many will fall ere my race is run. 
I have buried the World with its hopes and fears 
In my long, long march of a hundred years." 



PLATE XLIX. Whale Oil Lamps with Wicks; Mantel 
Lamps, 1815 ; Paul and Virginia Candelabra. 



SINCE the introduction of gas and electric light, 
the old-time lamp has ceased to be a necessity, 
though in many instances it still does service as 
the receptacle for the gas jet or electric bulb. 
Likewise, candlesticks and candelabra are still in 
use, not, of course, as necessities, as they were a 
century ago, but yet doing efficient service in the 
homes of people who realize that the soft glow 
of the candle affords an artistic touch that noth- 
ing else can give. Undeniably, there is a pecul- 
iar fascination about candlelight that few can 
resist, and in whatever room it is used, that room 
is benefited through its attractiveness. 

It is only when harking back that one realizes 
the strides that have been made in house light- 
ing. In the early days, when the country was 
new, the only light was firelight, candlewood, or 
pine torches. To be sure, there was always the 
punched lantern, hung on the wall ready for use 


at a moment's notice, but this was for outside 
rather than inside lighting. 

The earliest artificial light used by the colonist 
was candlewood, or pine torches. These torches 
were cut from trees in near-by forests, and were 
in reality short sections of dry, pitch-pine log 
from the heart of the wood, cut into thin strips, 
eight inches in length. The resinous quality of 
the wood caused these little splinters to burn like 
torches, hence their name. The drippings from 
them were caught on flat stones, which were laid 
just inside the fireplace; and to make a brighter 
light several torches were burned at one time, 
their steady flame, combined with the flickering 
blaze of the roaring logs, casting into the room 
just enough light by which to accomplish the 
simple tasks which had to be performed after 

Even this rude means of lighting was not avail- 
able in some homes, for it is not uncommon to 
read in old chronicles of lessons being learned by 
the light of the fire only. While such a state of 
affairs would be looked upon as a calamity to-day, 
it was not without compensation, for the merry 
flames of the huge logs, as they flickered and danced 
on the hearth, cast a cheerful light on the closed 


shutters, and against the brown walls, much to 
the delight of the little ones, who, seated on rude 
benches close at hand, threw hickory shavings into 
the fire to make it flame faster, or poked the great 
backlog with the long iron peel to make the sparks 
fly upward. 

Candlewood fagots were in use throughout New 
England until the early part of the eighteenth 
century, and it was customary each fall to cut 
enough wood to supply the family demand for a 
year. In some Northern states, these fagots were 
commonly used until 1820, while in the South 
they are used in a few sections even to-day, being 
often carried in the hand like a lantern. 

When candles were first used here, they were 
imported from England, but their cost was so 
high that they were prohibitive save for festive 
occasions. The scarcity of domestic animals in 
the new land barred their being killed save for 
meat, and thus was lost an opportunity for candle 
making that was seriously felt. Some people, in- 
cluding Governors Winthrop and Higginson, in 
1620 sent to England for supplies of tallow or 
suet to make their own candles, but the majority 
had to be content with candlewood. These first 
candles were fashioned without wicks, being pro- 


vided instead with pith taken from the common 
rush and generally known as rush light, a light- 
ing which possessed disadvantages, inasmuch as 
it burned but dimly and lasted but a short time. 
Even in 1634 we find that candles could not be 
bought for less than fourpence apiece, a price 
above the limited purses of the majority. For- 
tunately, the rivers were abundantly stocked with 
fish, and these were caught and killed, and their 
livers tried out for oil. This oil, which was crude, 
was principally used in lanterns, the wicks being 
made of loosely spun hemp and tow, often dipped 
in saltpeter. 

The earliest lamp was a saucer filled with oil, 
and having in the center a twisted rag. This 
rude form of wick was used for over a century. 
Then came the Betty lamp, a shallow receptacle, 
in form either circular, oval, or triangular, and 
made of pewter, iron, or brass. Filled with oil, it 
had for a wick the twisted rag, which was stuck 
into the oil and left protruding at one side. This 
type came into use before the invention of matches, 
and was lighted by flint and steel, or by a live 

A most unique specimen of the early lamp is 

seen in a Salem home. It stands about six inches 



high, with a circumference of about twelve inches, 
and is an inch thick. It is made of iron, showing 
a liplike pitcher, while at the back is a curved 
handle. It is arranged to be filled with oil, and 
the wick is the twisted rag, which rests on the 
nose. Tradition relates that this lamp was used 
at the time of the witchcraft delusion, to light 
the unfortunate prisoners to jail. 

When whale-fishing became the pursuit of the 
colonists, an addition to the lighting requisites was 
discovered in the form of sperm secured from the 
head of the whale. This proved very valuable in 
the manufacture of candles, which gave a much 
brighter light than the older type. So popular 
did this oil become that in 1762 a factory was 
established at Germantown, at that time a part 
of Quincy, to manufacture sperm oil from its 
crude state ; and candles made from this oil were 
later sold in Salem by one John Appleton. 

At this period, candle making was a home in- 
dustry, being included in the fall work of every 
good housewife. At candle season, two large 
kettles, half filled with water, were hung on the 
long iron crane over the roaring fire in the kitchen, 
and in this the tallow was melted, having to be 
scalded twice before it was ready for use. Across 


large poles placed on the back of two chairs, 
smaller ones, known as candle rods, were laid, 
and to each one of these was attached a wick. 
Each wick in turn was dipped into the boiling 
tallow and then set away to cool. This way of 
making candles was slow and tedious, and it re- 
quired skill to cool them without cracking, though 
an experienced candle-maker could easily fashion 
two hundred a day. 

Bayberry candles, so much in favor to-day, were 
also made in early times. The berries were 
gathered in the fall, and thrown into boiling 
water, the scum carefully removed as it formed. 
At first a dirty green color was secured, but as 
the wax refined, the coloring changed to a deli- 
cate, soft green. Candles of this type were not 
so plentiful as those of tallow, for the berries 
emitted but little fat, and they were therefore 
carefully treasured by their makers. To-day these 
candles are the most popular of all makes, emitting 
a pungent odor as they burn, but their cost some- 
times makes them prohibitive. Instead of the 
housewife always attending to this tedious task, 
it was sometimes performed by a person who 
went from house to house, making the winter's 
supply of bayberry candles. It was customary 


for every housekeeper in those days to have quan- 
tities of these in her storeroom, often as many as a 

With the increase in sheep, many were killed, 
and the tallow obtained used for candle making. 
Such candles were provided with wicks made from 
loosely spun hemp, four or five inch lengths being 
suspended from each candle rod. The number 
of wicks used depended largely on the size of the 
kettle of boiling water and tallow. First the 
wicks were very carefully straightened, and then 
dipped into the tallow, and when cold this process 
was repeated until the candle had attained the 
right shape. Great care had to be exercised in this 
respect, and also that the tallow was kept hot, 
the wicks straight, and that the wicks were not 
dipped too deep in the boiling tallow. In drying, 
care was taken lest they dry too quickly or too 
slowly, and also that a board was placed under- 
neath to catch the drippings. These drippings, 
when cool, were scratched from the board and 
used over. 

The introduction of candle molds lessened the 

task of candle making to a great extent, and, in 

addition, secured a better-shaped candle, and one 

that burned longer than the old dip type. With 



their advent came into vogue professional candle- 
makers, men who traveled all over the country, 
taking with them large molds. In two days' time, 
so rapidly did they work, they could make the 
entire stock for a family's winter supply. These 
candles, when complete, were very carefully packed 
away in wooden boxes to insure safety from 
mice. They were a jolly set of men, these candle- 
makers, who pursued the work for love of the 
roving life it afforded, as well as for the money it 
netted. They came equipped with the latest 
gossip, and their presence was a boon to the tired 
house mother, whose duties did not allow of 
much social intercourse. 

Ordinarily, candles were very sparingly used, 
but on festive occasions they were often burned 
in great quantities. At Hamilton Hall, in Salem, 
built at a cost of twenty-two thousand dollars, 
this mode of lighting was a feature, and in the 
early part of the nineteenth century, when the 
hall was the scene of the old assemblies, it was 
lighted by innumerable candles and whale-oil 
lamps, so many being required to properly illu- 
mine it that it took John Remond, Salem's noted 
caterer of that period, several days to prepare 
them for use. In those days, informal parties 


were much in vogue, commencing promptly at six 
and closing promptly at twelve, even if in the 
midst of a dance. The dances then enjoyed were 
of the contra type, waltzes and polkas being at 
that- day unknown. The gentlemen at these gay 
assemblies came dressed in Roger de Coverley 
coats, small-clothes, and silken stockings, while 
the ladies were arrayed in picturesque velvets and 
satins, the popular fabrics of the period. 

Candlesticks seem always to have been con- 
sidered a part of the house furnishings in America, 
for we find accounts of them in the earliest records 
of the colonies. Many of these were brought 
from England, and in colonial dwellings still stand- 
ing we find excellent specimens still preserved. 
The first candlesticks extensively used here were 
rudely fashioned of iron and tin, being among the 
first articles of purely domestic manufacture found 
in New England. Later, with the building of 
more pretentious homes, candlesticks made of 
brass, pewter, and silver came into vogue, the 
brass ones being the most commonly used, as well 
as candelabra, and in the homes of the wealthier 
class were found brass wall sconces that were 
imported from London and France. 

A particularly fine pair of these sconces is 


found in the Osgood house on Chestnut Street, 
Salem. Here the brass filigree work is in the form 
of a lyre encircled with a laurel wreath, and sur- 
mounted by the head of Apollo. The tree branches 
curve gracefully outward from the wreath and 
below the lyre. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century, 
snuffers and snuffer boats, as the trays in which 
the candlesticks rested were known, came into 
use. These were sometimes of plain design, and 
sometimes fanciful, made either of brass or silver. 
Pewter was also used for this purpose, and later 
it became a favorite metal for the manufacture of 
hall lamps and candlesticks. 

Lanterns next came into style and were a promi- 
nent feature of the hallway furnishing. Many of 
these were gilded and many were painted, and 
their greatest period of popularity was during the 
first part of the eighteenth century. About 1750 
the first glass lamps came into favor. These were 
not like those of a later period, being very simple 
in form, and not particularly graceful. 

In 1782 a Frenchman, named Argand, intro- 
duced the lamp which still bears his name. This 
marked the beginning of the lamp era, and while 
at first these lamps were so high in price that they 


could only be afforded by the wealthier classes, 
later they were produced at a more reasonable 
figure, when they came into general use. 

The last half of the eighteenth century marked 
the adoption of magnificent chandeliers, many of 
which are still preserved. One such is found in 
the Warner house at Portsmouth, in the parlor 
at the right of the wide old hall, a room wherein 
have assembled many notable gatherings, for the 
Hon. Jonathan Warner was a generous host. This 
specimen is among the finest in the country, and 
is in keeping with the other fine old-time fittings. 

About the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
candelabra and lamps with glass prisms were 
much used, some of them very simple in design, 
being little more than a plain stick with a few 
prisms attached, while others were very elabo- 
rate. Many of these candlesticks and candelabra 
are still preserved, together with the other old- 
time lights. In a Jamaica Plain home are some 
very valuable specimens of lighting fixtures that 
once stood on the mantel in the Sprague House 
on Essex Street, Salem, having been brought to 
this country by the first owner at the time the 
dwelling was being furnished for his bride. 

With Fashion's decree that lamps and candelabra 


should be hung with cut-glass prisms, they attained 
great popularity, and sets of three came to be 
regular ornaments of the carved mantelpieces. 
These sets consisted of a three-pronged candela- 
brum for the middle, and a single stick on either 
side. The stand was of marble, while the stand- 
ards were of gilt. At the base of each candle a 
brass ornament, like an inverted crown, supported 
the sparkling prisms, which jingled and caught 
rainbow reflections at every slight quiver. In the 
lamps, frequently the side portions were of bronze, 
the lamp for holding the oil being surrounded by 
prisms which depended from the central standard. 
The flaring chimneys of ground glass softened and 
shaded the light, while they also kept it from 
flickering in case of sudden draughts. 

Up to the year 1837, flint and steel were the 
only mode of ignition, and their long association 
with old-time lights makes them an intimate part 
of them. At first both flint and steel were very 
crudely made, but later on, some of the steels 
were very ornamental. With them was used a 
tinder box, with its store of charred linen to 
catch the tiny flame as it leaped toward the steel, 
and this, too, must be considered in the review of 
old-time lights. 



PLATE LII. Pierced, or Paul Revere Lantern ; Old Hand 
Lantern; English Silver Candlesticks; Brass Branching 
Candlesticks, Chippendale, 1760. 


Examples of these and the old forms of lighting 
are found in every part of New England and 
throughout the South, though perhaps the largest 
collection in any single section is found in Salem, 
the home of excellent examples of all things 
colonial. As one views them, he cannot but be 
impressed with their quaintness, and while no 
doubt he is thankful for the strides in science 
that have made possible the brilliant illumination 
of the present, yet in his heart he must acknowl- 
edge that the present lights, though in many in- 
stances undeniably beautiful, lack the charm of 
the old-time types. 



CHINA constituted an important part of the 
household equipment in colonial days, and while 
not as antique as pewter and wooden ware, it 
outrivaled both in beauty and popular favor. 
Its daintiness of coloring, variety of make, and 
exquisiteness of texture afforded a welcome change 
from the somber-colored and little varied ware 
hitherto used ; and its fragility proved of won- 
drous interest to the careful housewife, causing 
her to bestow upon it her tenderest care and to 
zealously guard it against harm, since it was her 
delight to boast that her sets were intact. To-day 
it is equally appreciated, and it is displayed on 
the shelves of built-in cupboards, with all the 
pride of possession exhibited by its original owners. 

Old cupboards are somehow always associated 
with old china in this country, and in most in- 
stances they are worthy of the admiration in which 
they are held. In colonial times, cupboards 
formed a decorative feature of the house furnishings, 


and they were fashioned with as much regard for 
shape and finish as the rooms in which they were to 
be placed. In time they came to be considered 
almost indispensable adjuncts, and with their 
increase in favor, their development became 
marked. Perhaps the finest type is that with the 
shell top, some excellent examples of which are 
still preserved, notably in the Brown Inn at Hamil- 
ton and in the Dummer house at Byfield, Massa- 

Of all the old wares used here, salt glaze is most 
rarely found, most collections including not even 
a single specimen. This is probably due in a great 
measure to its fragility; it is not owing to its 
scarcity of import, as large quantities of this ware 
were brought here in early times. Examples now 
found are principally of Staffordshire manufacture, 
made between 1760 and 1780, though much of the 
ware that was made about 1720, belonging to the 
so-called second period, was shipped here. 

A study of all forms of salt glaze is of interest, 
but that of English manufacture is of most impor- 
tance to American collectors, for it is that type that 
the colonists imported, and with which American 
collections are most closely associated. 

The process of salt glaze manufacture was known 



in England as early as 1660, and a familiar legend 
as to its origin was that it was accidentally discov- 
ered through the boiling over of a kettle of brine, the 
salt running down the outside of the earthen pot, 
and, when cold, hardening upon it, forming a glaze. 
This theory has been discredited by later scientists, 
and it is not unlikely that it was the invention of 
some imaginary individual, but however that may 
be, the ware in itself is of unusual attractiveness, and 
records show that upon its introduction into Staf- 
fordshire, it superseded in favor the dull lead glaze. 

The first ware finished by this method was coarse 
and brown, a type that remained in vogue until 
the early years of the eighteenth century, when a 
gray ware was produced. Some of this latter 
found its way to America, but the type most famil- 
iar here is that manufactured in the closing years 
of the eighteenth century, a ware with a white or 
nearly white body, thin and graceful in contour, 
and characterized by a very hard saline glaze. 

Pepper pots, soup tureens, plates, and pitchers 
were among the most common pieces manufactured, 
though teapots in various shapes, bottles, vases, 
etc., were also made. Some of these pieces have a 
plain center and decorated border, while others show 
an entirely decorated surface. 


Another output of the Staffordshire factories, 
now much valued here, are the old toby jugs, many 
excellent examples of which were brought here and 
have been carefully preserved. In their way 
they are as interesting as the finest china bits, their 
gay coloring and quaint shape affording a striking 
contrast to the delicately tinted and daintily shaped 
Lowestoft and like wares. 

The first tobies were in reality scarcely more than 
hollow figures to which a handle had been attached, 
but as time went on they grew more and more like 
mugs, and while at first the cap or hat lifted off, 
forming a cover, the succeeding style had the hat 
incorporated into the mug. 

Tobies are broadly classed as Staffordshire, and 
while this is probably true of a large portion, Dutch 
and German tobies as well as French ones are not 
uncommon. A supposed example of the last 
named is included in the Page collection at Lynn, 
and is known as the Napoleon toby. It is thought 
to be French from the fact that the likeness of the 
little corporal is not a caricature. English potters 
delighted to depict Bonaparte, but they seldom 
gave him the attractive countenance of this jug. 
They made him tall and thin, or short and abnor- 
mally fat, and they decked him in queer clothes, 


and labeled him "Boney." This jug depicts Na- 
poleon in a very pleasant guise, suave of counte- 
nance and very well dressed. There is a smoothness 
of texture and finish about the work which marks 
it as distinct from the English tobies, which un- 
fortunately frequently lacked these desirable quali- 

English tobies are sometimes classified as young 
and old tobies. The terms are expressive, for the 
young toby is a figure standing, as if full of vigor 
and life, with a jovial, happy-go-lucky expression, 
while the old toby is represented seated, with a 
worldly-wise face that has the appearance of having 
experienced life to the fullest. Both types always 
carry a mug in one hand, or both hands, from 
which a foaming liquid is about to issue. The 
coloring of the old toby is principally yellow, while 
the young toby is a combination of brown and 
yellow. Of course, both these colorings are varied 
with others. 

Tobies show considerable variety in modeling 
and decoration. Some are jovial in appearance, 
others placid, and still others leering. In fact, 
every kind of a toby is represented, except a dry 
one. In addition to depicting the figures of human 
beings, some tobies represented animals, and not a 

PLATE LIV. Liverpool Pitcher, showing Salem Ship ; Old Chelsea 
Ware; Canton China Teapot; Wedgwood, with Rose decora- 

PLATE LV. Gold Luster Pitcher; Staffordshire Pitcher with Rose 
decoration; Peacock Delft Pitcher; Jasper Ware Wedgwood 
Pitcher. Blue and White. 


few were in the form of teapots. The latter were 
generally finished in blue, with a band of green and 
a bit of copper luster, and in height they varied 
from twelve to eighteen inches. 

Although these drinking mugs were made in 
many factories, none bear hallmarks, save those 
made at Bennington, and, in consequence, those 
are more highly prized by connoisseurs. A unique 
specimen among the output of this factory has no 
mug in the hand, the arms being arranged close 
to the body, which has the appearance of having 
no arms at all. 

Delft ware, which is at the present time enjoy- 
ing great favor among collectors, made the country 
where it originated famous, and its history is in 
reality the history of Holland's commercial rise. 

Besides its age, old Delft has the charm of indi- 
viduality. As the designs were handworked, the 
ware lacks the precision in drawing that later 
stamped pieces have, and shows softened outlines 
instead of sharply defined pictures. Nor is old 
Delft ware so intense in coloring as its descendants 
of to-day. Comparing them side by side on a 
plate rail, or hanging on the wall, old Delft is told 
by its soft, beautiful blue. Then there is the 
charm of association. Coming from a nation of 


thrift and exemplary housekeeping, Delft, much 
more than fragile glass, aristocratic china, or cu- 
rious foreign objects, appeals to the collector as a 
cheerful, comfortable, homelike thing to collect. 

There are undoubtedly many good specimens in 
this country to-day, but many more are inacces- 
sible. Connecticut, as well as New England 
generally, has considerable, for the merchant 
princes who brought so many other treasures to 
Eastern ports brought also Delft. How much more 
of this charming old ware is hidden under peaked 
roofs of story-and-a-half farmhouses in some of the 
old Dutch settlements along the Hudson and on 
Long Island, is unknown, but perhaps we shall 
know in another generation or so. 

Among our specimens we find more of the Eng- 
lish than the Dutch Delft. The latter, which is 
the original ware, took its name from the town of 
Delft, where the ware was first produced, and 
which, for several centuries, continued to be the 
chief center of the Delft industry. Although it was 
probably made as early as the latter part of the fif- 
teenth century, but little is known of it until about 
one hundred years later. Its origin was an attempt 
on the part of Dutch potters to imitate, in a cheaper 
form, Chinese and Japanese wares. At that time 


were made large importations of Eastern wares, 
and Holland, as the only European power allowed 
a port by Japan, had a great variety of types to 
copy. The first potteries were established at 
Delft about the year 1600, and almost from its 
inception the industry was protected by a trust. 
For nearly one hundred and fifty years, the pro- 
tection of this trust or "Guild of St. Luke" made 
Delft an important manufacturing center, giving em- 
ployment to nearly one twelfth of its inhabitants. 
The best examples of this old Dutch Delft are beau- 
tiful copies of Chinese and Japanese porcelain, 
which are hardly distinguishable from the Oriental. 

A fact worth noting in connection with the 
rapid rise and great popularity of Delft is that the 
combination or Guild which was instrumental in 
the prosperity of the industry was also at least 
partly responsible for its downfall. In Holland, 
an independent maker could not flourish, but the 
progressive English made it very well worth while 
for workmen to emigrate. 

There was another and perhaps more potent 
factor in the decline of the Dutch Delft industry ; 
the very success of Delft potters became their 
ruin. The market was glutted with their prod- 
ucts, and there ceased to be the same demand 


for it as formerly. Gradually, the English ware, 
made of better clay, although cheaper in price, sup- 
planted the Dutch ware, even in Holland, and as 
early as 1760 the struggle for existence began among 
the Dutch potteries. Of the thirty establishments 
existing in the beginning of the century, only eight 
were working in 1808, and most of these soon after 

The most common pieces made, in point of 
numbers, were the Delft plates. Some excellent 
examples of these are found in the Page collection 
at Newburyport, one, a peacock plate, being a good 
example of Dutch Delft in one of its most popular 
patterns. Another shows the design of a basket of 
flowers, and this same adornment is on an old 
English platter, a piece that deserves not only a 
compliment to its beauty, but also a tribute to its 
Dutch-English durability, since within a few years 
it has been used to hold all of a New England boiled 

Delft tile was produced almost as commonly 
as plates, although at first it was used to illustrate 
many designs essentially Dutch, and also religious 
subjects. It is on record that the Boston News 
Letter of 1716 advertised the first sale of "Fine 
Holland Tile" in America, and in that same paper, 


three years later, is a notice of "Dutch Tile for 
Chimney." From that date on, all through the 
century, one may find recurring advertisements 
of chimney tiles, on the arrival of every foreign 
ship. They must have been imported in vast num- 
bers in the aggregate, and they were not expensive, 
yet they are rare in New England. 

Americans have always been patrons of Delft 
ware, and as a result a representative lot of the 
very best types is found here, and while it is to be 
regretted that the old tiles are not included in any 
great numbers in this list, yet those preserved are 
eminently satisfactory. 

An English writer has said that controversy 
always makes a subject interesting. Lowestoft 
was already so enchanting a topic that the search- 
light of exposition was scarcely needed to reveal 
additional charms. 

Of the several wares that have been labeled 
Lowestoft, there seem to be four distinct varieties. 
There is the Simon-pure, soft-paste, Lowestoft 
china, made and decorated in the town of Lowe- 
stoft; there is the so-called Lowestoft, which is 
purely Oriental, being both made and decorated 
in China ; there is probably ware made in China 
and decorated in Lowestoft ; and there is probably 


ware made in Holland and decorated in Lowestoft. 
All of these may bear the printed name of the town, 
since members of the company which traded in 
them resided at that place. Doubt has been cast 
upon every one of these four wares, but the first 
two, at least, seem to be cleared of all uncertainty. 

For the last half of the eighteenth century, a 
factory existed at Lowestoft. This is true, beyond 
the shadow of a doubt. It was, however, a small 
factory, employing at its best but seventy hands, 
and having but one oven and one kiln. It is simply 
impossible that great quantities of hard-glaze 
porcelain should have been brought from over- 
seas, to be decorated, and then fired in this one 
small kiln. If the whole output charged up to 
Lowestoft had been really hers, the factory must 
needs have been the largest in England, which it 
certainly was not. 

The first ware produced was of a dingy white, 
coarse, and semi-opaque. The glaze was slightly 
"blued" with cobalt, and speckled with bubbles 
and minute black spots, which seemed to show 
careless firing. When viewed by transmitted light, 
the pieces had a distinctly yellowish tinge. There 
was never any distinctive mark, as in the case of 
Crown Derby. 



About 1790 a change for the better took place 
in the character of the ware. Certain French 
refugees, driven from their own country by the 
lawlessness of the great Revolution, began to come 
into England. One of these men, who was named 
Rose, obtained employment at the Lowestoft works, 
where he soon became head decorator, and intro- 
duced taste as well as delicacy of touch into the 
product. Underneath many Lowestoft handles 
will be found a small rose, which denotes that the 
work was done by him. The rose is his mark, but 
before this was known, people supposed that it 
merely represented the coat of arms for Lowestoft 
borough, which was the Tudor rose. 

Roses set back to back appear on the highest 
grade of Lowestoft china ; and at its best the ware 
was finer than any sent out by Bow and Chelsea. 
The Lowestoft red is of a peculiar quality, varying 
from carmine to ashes of roses, and often approach- 
ing a plum color. Roses and garlands of roses in 
these lovely hues of pink and purple distinguish 
this china. Dainty and familiar are the flowers 
and sprigs in natural colors, with delicate borders 
in color and gold. 

A familiar style of decoration was that of the dark 
blue bands, or dots, or other figures, heavily over- 


laid with gold and often with coats of arms. This 
ware is a hard-paste porcelain, and was doubtless 
made and decorated in China. The fact that some 
of it bears the mark of "Allen Lowestoft," and that 
Mr. Allen was manager of the Lowestoft works at 
this time, proves nothing beyond the fact that when 
the dealer sent his order to China to be filled, he 
ordered his name marked on the bottom. Small 
quantities of undecorated ware may have been 
brought from China and Holland to be painted, but 
we have no record of any such transactions ; the 
duty was heavy, and the amount of such ware 
imported must have been inconsiderable. China 
was doing this same work for other countries, and 
it is only reasonable to suppose that the managers 
of the Lowestoft factory sent the greater part of 
their orders to China to be filled by Chinese work- 
men upon Chinese material. 

This also explains the failure of the company. 
It is recorded upon good authority that the ruin 
resulted partly from the sharp competition with the 
Staffordshire wares, but was precipitated in 1803 
by the wreck of one of the vessels carrying a cargo 
of porcelain, and by the burning of the Rotter- 
dam warehouse by the French army. 

Rotterdam, where Lowestoft ware was stored, 


was the seat of an immense commerce between 
Holland and China. It seems but natural that their 
trade in common Delft wares should lead the 
Lowestoft company into communication with 
wholesale importers of Chinese porcelain, from 
whom they could purchase large supplies; and 
should also lead them into the establishment, in 
England, of a more highly remunerative branch of 
their business, through underselling the Dutch 
East India Company. 

It was customary for the Dutch firms to send over 
to their foreign settlements shapes and designs 
obtained from European sources, to be reproduced 
by native hands. The Lowestoft people did what 
all other merchants had done before them, and 
through the same channel forwarded to China the 
designs of coats of arms, English mottoes, and ini- 
tials that were to be printed upon the porcelain 
which they had undertaken to supply. 

And so the great conflagration of the Lowestoft 
controversy was furnished with fuel, and there is 
no knowing where it will end, because conclusive 
proof is so slight in each case and the partisans 
so eager and aggressive. Meantime, our grand- 
mother's sprigged china remains a joy and a delight, 
whether or no we dare to call it genuine Lowestoft. 


There is no mystification about Crown Derby, 
but the old ware, which along with Lowestoft was 
beloved of the colonists, is as distinctive as any, 
and fortunate indeed is the individual who can 
boast of having in his possession a specimen. The 
works of Derby were established by a French 
refugee, named Planche, who had been sojourning 
in Saxony until the death of his father, when he 
came to Derby in 1745, bringing with him the secret 
of china manufacture, as he had learned it in Sax- 
ony. We have reason to suppose that he made in 
Derby many china figures of cats, dogs, shepherd- 
esses, Falstaffs, Minervas, and the like, which Wil- 
liam Duesbury, who was an expert enameler in 
London, colored for him. Unfortunately, none of 
this early output of the factory was marked, and 
in consequence it has become sadly confused, not 
only with the work of Bow and Chelsea, but with 
that of Lowestoft as well. After 1770, a mark 
was adopted, and the ware after that date is easily 

William Duesbury bought out Blanche's inter- 
est in the Derby works, though he did not dispense 
with Blanche's services. Keenly artistic, with a 
taste at once discriminating and appreciative, 
Duesbury combined a winning personality with his 


intellectual gifts. He possessed the faculty of 
securing the services of potters of unusual worth, 
and throughout his management, which continued 
until his death in 1796, he maintained in his output 
a standard of pure English art work of the highest 

Prominent in the group of potters in his employ 
stands the name of William Billingsley, who was 
connected with the factory from 1774 to 1796. 
At Derby he established his reputation as a painter 
of exquisite flowers, and his work is characterized 
by a singularly true perception of intrinsic beauty 
and decorative value, being original and unham- 
pered by traditional technique. The rose was his 
favorite flower ; he invariably painted the back of 
a rose in his groups, and his justly famed "Billings- 
ley Roses" are exceedingly soft in their treatment. 
Another favorite of his is the double-flowered stock, 
either yellow or white, and always shaded in gray. 

In 1785 Duesbury associated with himself his 
son, the second William Duesbury, and then 
followed the most successful period of the work, 
being in reality the Crown Derby epoch par ex- 
cellence. After the death of the elder Duesbury, 
the second William Duesbury became sole owner of 
the Derby works, but failing health compelled him 


to take Michael Kean into the firm as partner. 
After the death of the younger Duesbury, Kean 
assumed control of the whole works, but his mis- 
management soon resulted in the sale of the factory 
to Robert Bloor in 1810. 

This marked the commencement of a new dis- 
pensation, and after this date the trademark became 
"Bloor-Derby." For a time things went on in the 
old way, but soon Bloor, in his eagerness to amass 
a fortune, yielded to temptation and began to put 
on the market ware that had been accumulating 
in the storehouse for sixty years, and which Planche 
and the Duesburys had considered of inferior 
quality and discarded. This ware he decorated 
with so-called Japan patterns, to hide defects; 
and, to make a bad matter worse, he used for 
coloring the flowing under-glaze blue, which was 
wholly unsuited to the soft glaze of the Delft 
ware, and was sure to " run " in the glost oven. 

The train of ruin was now well laid, and by 1822 
Bloor was forced to resort to auction sales in the 
factory, in order to dispose of his output. The 
result was an utter loss of reputation for factory 
and product, and before the manufacture had 
reached the century mark of its existence, Derby 
china was relegated to the past. 


Many beautiful specimens of Crown Derby were 
imported to this country, one of the finest being in 
Mrs. William C. West's collection at Salem, showing 
the head of Bacchus with grapevine and wreath 
decoration, the whole beautifully colored. 

Expressive of the greatest heights which Eng- 
lish pottery reached, is the ware of Wedgwood, and 
a review of his achievements forms the most 
interesting chapter in the history of England's 
ceramic art. Of a family of potters, Josiah Wedg- 
wood early exhibited the traits which later made him 
so justly famous, and a review of his life from the 
age of eleven years, when he was put to work in the 
potworks, as a thrower, until his death in 1795, 
covering a period of fifty-four years, is a review of 
the most remarkable story of progressiveness in a 
chosen profession ever recorded. 

During the early days of his pottery making, 
about five years after his apprenticeship had ex- 
pired, Wedgwood became associated with Thomas 
Whieldon, a potter who had attained considerable 
success in the manufacture of combed and agate 
wares, and the period of their partnership, which 
ended in 1759, was of benefit to both. One of 
Wedgwood's first successes was made at this time, 
in the invention of a green glaze which Whiel- 


don used with excellent effect on his cauliflower 

With the expiration of this partnership, Wedg- 
wood returned to Burslem, where he soon pur- 
chased an interest in the Ivy Works, where he 
worked independently, and laid the foundation 
for many of his future successes. Among other 
things he experimented in perfecting the coarse 
cream wares then on the market, and six years 
after his coming to the Ivy Works he succeeded in 
producing his first real achievement, "Queen's 

The success of this ware was most pronounced, 
and its popularity caused Wedgwood to realh 
that a division of labor which would allow him to 
look after the creative part and supply some one else 
to care for the commercial side of the undertaking 
was most important. In 1768, Thomas Bentley 
was taken on for this purpose, and at the new 
works, to which Wedgwood had previously re- 
moved, and known as the Bell House or Brick House, 
the new regime went into effect. The popularity 
of Queen's Ware had netted him enough to allow 
him to make finer productions, and after the finis! 
of several schemes, in 1769, he removed to the fa- 
mous factory known as Etruria, where his fmesi 

PLATE LVII. Venetian and English Decanters; Toddy 
glasses, about 1800; English Glass with Silver 
Coasters. Vert old. 


work was accomplished, and at which place he re- 
mained until his death. 

The several wares he manufactured are as varied 
as they are beautiful, and, in addition, he pos- 
sessed the power to reproduce in a remarkable 
degree. This is best exemplified in his replica 
of the famous Portland Vase, which is so perfect 
that it has often deceived even connoisseurs. An 
amusing incident is related in connection with one 
of his reproductions, a Delft piece of a dinner set, 
which had become broken, and which he fashioned 
and sent to the owner by a messenger. The mes- 
senger started for his destination, which was but 
a short distance, but he did not appear again for a 
week. Upon his return, Wedgwood questioned him, 
and learned that the family was so delighted with 
the reproduction that they had kept the messenger, 
feasting him the entire time. 

While old Wedgwood in all its forms is appre- 
ciated in this country, for some reason or other 
cream ware and jasper ware are especially favored 
among American collectors. Fine pieces of both 
are included in the Rogers collection at Danvers, 
the jasper piece being an especially fine specimen. 

A review of old china would not seem complete 
it including the luster wares, several excellent 


examples of which are in American collections. 
Silver-tinted comes first in point of rarity, though 
the rose-spotted Sunderland luster is a close second 
in this respect, and really commands a higher 
price. Originally, silver luster was a cheap imita- 
tion of silver, and first specimens were lustered 
inside as well as out, to further increase the de- 
ception. When the ware became common, and 
the deception was well known, silver luster was 
used only on the exterior of vessels in decorations, 
and occasionally in conjunction with gold luster. 
After 1838, which year marked the introduction of 
electroplating, silver luster declined in favor, and 
shortly after the completion of the first half of 
the nineteenth century ceased to be manufactured. 
Numberless beautiful articles were made of this 
ware, including quaint candlesticks, teapots, cream 
jugs, bowls, salt cellars, and vases. 

Copper and gold luster are likewise shown in 
a variety of attractive forms, and these, unlike 
silver luster, were never made as shams. Wedg- 
wood is credited with having first made the copper- 
and gold-lustered wares, but authentic proof of 
this is lacking. Jugs were often lustered with gold 
and copper, the latter usually characterized by bands 
of brilliant yellow or colored flowers, sometimes 


printed and sometimes painted. The gold luster 
was especially fine, and it is this type, together with 
copper luster, that is most commonly found. Ex- 
cellent specimens of gold-lustered ware are found 
in a collection at Lynn, one piece of exceptional 
interest having been secured at the time of the 
Civil War by a party of Northern soldiers while 
devastating a Southern plantation. 




OF all the old-time wares, glass, until recently, 
has been most rarely collected, and in consequence, 
whereas specimens of silver and pewter are com- 
paratively abundant, examples of glass are scarce. 
There are several reasons for this, the principal 
being its fragility; and then, too, the date of il 
manufacture is very uncertain. To be sure, the 
shape and finish of a glass piece determines in 
measure the period of its make, but it is not pi 
positive, any more than are the traditions hand< 
down in families as to the time of purchase 
certain specimens. Yet, notwithstanding all this, 
the price of old glass is constantly increasing, an< 
within the last few years has almost doubled. 

The first glass made was of a coarse type, cru< 
in shape, and of greenish coloring, with sand an< 
bubbles showing on its surface, detracting from il 
finish. Examples of this type are very scai 
to-day, bringing prices wholly at variance with theii 
attractiveness. Up to the eighteenth century, al 


glass was very expensive, making it prohibitive to 
all but the wealthy classes, but since that time its 
cost has been greatly reduced, and beautiful speci- 
mens, of exquisite design, can now be purchased at 
prices within the means of almost every one. Of 
course, these later specimens do not possess the 
quaintness of old-time pieces, and to the collector 
they are of no interest whatever. The fad of 
collecting has brought into favor the old types, 
and throughout the country the regard for old 
glassware is constantly increasing, although it 
will be some time before it comes into prominence 
here in the same measure that it has in England. 

While the origin of glass is not definitely certain, 
yet specimens are in existence which are known to 
have been made before the coming of Christ, such 
as the celebrated Portland Vase, a Roman product, 
now seen in the British Museum. After the de- 
cline of glass making in Rome, the craft was gradu- 
ally taken up in Venice and Bohemia, the output 
of the former country ranking among the finest 
made, and including, among other things, the 
exquisite Venetian drinking cups, which are un- 
rivaled in beauty. 

So important was the craft considered in these 
early times that manufacturers received great 


attention from the government, were dubbed 
"Gentlemen," and were looked upon with awe 
by the common people. Naturally, great secrecy 
surrounded the plying of the craft, and this secrecy 
led to the circulation of mysterious tales. One 
legend was that the furnace fire created a monster 
called the salamander, and it was firmly believed 
that at stated intervals he came out of the furnace, 
and carried back with him any chance visitor. 
People who glanced fearfully into the furnace de- 
clared that they saw him curled up at one side of 
his fiery bed, and the absence of any workmen was 
at once attributed to this monster's having caj 
tured him. 

The early green glass of the Rhine and Holland, 
while made by German-speaking people, cannot be 
considered as characteristic of German glass. 
These people lived on either side of the mountains 
which gird Bohemia on three sides, and divide that 
kingdom from Silesia, Saxony, and Bavaria respec- 
tively, and the glass they made was painted ii 
beautiful colors, the finer kind being engraved in 
the upland countries, where water was abundant. 
Gilding was also much employed by them, anc 
we learn that in the seventeenth and eighteentl 
centuries this decoration was fixed by a col< 


process ; that is, by simply attaching the gold leaf 
by means of varnish. This form of decoration was 
only lasting when applied to the sunken parts of 
the glass. 

Very little of this glass was used in the section 
where it was manufactured, nearly the whole 
product being exported to Austria, Germany, 
Italy, the East, and even to America. The in- 
dustry was popular in Bohemia, for it furnished 
labor to a part of the population, helping to keep 
them from want, and it procured for the rich land- 
owners a revenue from the use of their woods. 

The factories, which were rudely built, were 
located in the center of forest tracts, and they 
produced, in addition to ordinary glass pieces, 
articles that were intended to be highly worked or 
richly engraved, also colored glass, decorated with 
gilding and painting. Long experience in the manu- 
facture of colored glass had made these workmen 
expert in this branch, and any advice they needed, 
they obtained from men of information who made 
their living by seeking out and selling secrets con- 
cerning processes and improvements in glass manu- 
facture. All capital required was advanced by 
rich lords, who were eager to insure the success of 
industries established upon their premises. 



Glass cutting and luster making were regarded 
as special trades, being carried on in huts beside 
small streams ; and engraving, gilding, and paint- 
ing likewise formed separate branches, all paid by 
the very lowest wages. Products of all the fac- 
tories were collected by agents from commercial 
houses, and by them distributed among the various 

Comparison between the Bohemian product and 
the older glass upon the market resulted strongly 
in favor of the former. It was clear, white, light, 
and of agreeable delicacy to the touch, and no other 
glass as purely colorless was made until the modern 
discovery of flint glass, made by the use of lead. 

Through the invention of one Gasper Lehmann, 
improved engraving on Bohemian glass became 
possible, opening a field for decorative art that 
hitherto had been undreamed of. With his pupil 
George Schwanhard, he improved designs, and the 
world went engraved-glass mad. Nothing but this 
type would sell, and as material became scarce, 
Venetian pieces, already a hundred years old, were 
brought into requisition and engraved. 

At the commencement of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, some of the Bohemian manufacturers were 
producing vases of various shapes enriched with 


engraved ornaments, representing scenes, and fre- 
quently portraits. Some of the former type are 
shown in the wonderful collection owned by Mr. 
W. J. Mitchell at Manchester, Massachusetts. 
With the pronounced popularity of the Bohemian 
engraved vases, artists in other countries began 
decorating their ware in like fashion, those of 
France employing interlaced flowers. These were 
etched on, rather than engraved, however, and 
cheapened the ware ; in other countries the results 
obtained were no better, all failing to compare 
with the Bohemian specimens, for the art of en- 
graving here had been learned from long experi- 
ence by workmen who were experts in their line. 

Many Bohemian pieces showed an original dec- 
oration in the way of ornamentations in relief on 
the outside, while the art of cameo incrustation 
was also first used by Bohemian workers, who 
sometimes varied it to obtain odd and pleasing 
effects by engraving through an outer casing of 
colored glass into an interior of white, transparent, 
or enameled glass. One such specimen, a salt 
cellar, is shown in the Mitchell collection. 

Ruby coloring was a characteristic of many fine 
Bohemian pieces, and its acquirement was a source 
of despair to any number of workers, it being hard 


to hit on just the right combination to produce 
the desired shade. So important did this feature 
become that we learn of one Kunckel, an artist, 
being given sixteen hundred ducats by the elector 
of Brandenburg to assist in attaining perfection in 
this shade of coloring. The ware of this type was 
made in the last half of the seventeenth century, 
and specimens were the admiration of all beholders. 

It is a ware that possesses a strange attraction. 
No other type of glass is more a favorite with 
collectors than this, and no other encourages the 
amateur to greater endeavor in its pursuit, no 
matter how discouraging it may be at first. Then, 
too, no matter how large the collection may be, 
it is never monotonous, for the various specimens 
show a great diversity of form and ornamentation. 

The collection of Bohemian glass shown at the 
Mitchell house at Manchester, contains some 
wonderful examples of the art, including decanters 
with long and slender stems, odd salt cellars in 
frames of silver, bonbon dishes, and numerous 
other pieces, some in the rare ruby coloring, and 
others in white and gilt. 

Other fine pieces are found at the Nichols house 

on Federal Street, Salem, and in the Atkinson 

collection, also at Salem, while at Andover, at 


PLATE LVIII. Russian Glass Decanter and Tumblers; Note 
the exquisite cutting on this Decanter. 





the old Kittredge house, many rare bits are to 
be seen. All of these specimens are heirlooms, 
those in the Kittredge house having been in the 
family since the home was erected, in the latter 
part of the eighteenth century. 

While examples of all types of glass are to be found 
in America, perhaps the most common specimens 
are of English make, brought to the new country 
after business had become firmly established, along 
with the other fine household equipments. Among 
these are many fine decanters and tumblers of 
various designs, particularly interesting from the 
part they shared in the long accepted belief that 
glass drinking vessels of every kind, made under 
certain astronomical influences, would fly to pieces 
if any poisonous liquid was placed in them; and 
also that drinking glasses of colored ware added 
flavor to wine, and detracted materially from 
its intoxicating quality. Some of these drinking 
glasses, known in England as toddy glasses, were 
the forerunners of our present tumblers. 

English collections, of course, include much 
earlier specimens of the ware than do American, 
for it was not until the latter part of the eighteenth 
century, when the seaport towns of New England 
were at the height of their prosperity, that sea 



captains brought here from England and other ports 
all kinds of glass. Some of the finest of this found 
its way to Salem, and in the Waters house, on 
Washington Square, are stored some of the rarest 
of these specimens. These have all been collected 
by Mr. Fitz Waters, who has devoted years in 
research of old-time things, and they represent 
not only the different periods of manufacture, but 
the output of the different countries as well. In- 
cluded are many engraved pieces, decanters which 
cannot be duplicated, and rare and wonderful 
bits, such as toddy glasses and numberless other 
glasses of varying kinds, many of them beautifully 
engraved with delicate tracery and the tulip of 

Many beautiful wine glasses and tumblers can 
be classified by their name, such as the white 
twist stem, made between 1745 and 1757, the 
twisted appearance of the stem being the result of 
a peculiar process, the baluster stem, and the 
air twist stem, some of the latter showing domed 

Several of the best types of glasses are shown in 
the West collection in Salem. The cutting of the 
stems of several of these fix the date of manufacture 
at about 1800, while others of unusual shapes 



show bird and shield designs, also the wreath and 
flower. It is by the design more than anything 
else that the date of manufacture is fixed, determin- 
ing the choiceness of the piece, and the money it 
should bring. 

While England has furnished most of the pieces 
shown here to-day, yet in the Northend collec- 
tion in Salem are several fine Russian specimens. 
These are deeply cut, and were brought to this 
country from Russia by one John Harrod about 
the year 1800. For many years they were stored 
in the old Harrod house at Newburyport, finding 
their way to their present abode when the Harrod 
dwelling was dismantled, the owner being a 
descendant of this family. One piece, which is 
most unusual, is a deep punch bowl with a cover. 

Curiously enough, the first industrial enter- 
prise undertaken in America was a factory for the 
manufacture of glass bottles. It was built very 
early in the history of the Virginia colony, and stood 
about a mile from Jamestown, in the midst of a 
woodland tract. Later, other factories were erected, 
many of them manufacturing glass beads to be used 
in trading with the Indians. The oldest glass 
plant still doing business, which has been continu- 
ous since its beginning, is located at Kensing- 


ton in Philadelphia, having been established in 

To many it may be still unknown that Bohemian 
glassware has been manufactured in this country, 
and at a very early period. From Mannheim, 
in Germany, in the year 1750, came a certain Baron 
Stiegel, whose parents had dubbed him William 
Henry. He laid out, in Pennsylvania, the village 
which bears the name of his native place, and 
there he established ironworks and glassworks, and 
deeded a plot of ground to the Lutheran congre- 
gation, in consideration of their annual payment, 
forever, of one red rose. The glasshouse was dome- 
shaped, and so large that a coach-and-six could 
enter at the doorway, turn around inside, and drive 
out again. He brought skilled workmen from the 
best factories in Europe, and made richly colored 
bowls and goblets, which have the true Bohemian 
ring, and which are now in the possession of local 

His works did not continue for any length of 
time, as he failed in business about five years after 
he started, but the old Stiegel house is still standing 
in the heart of the town, distinguished by the red 
and black bricks of which it is built. And there 
still, in the month of June, is often celebrated the 


Feast of Roses, one feature of which is the payment 
of a great red rose by a church officer to the baron's 

But of all the old glass made here, perhaps the 
bottles form the most interesting portion. For the 
first seventy years of the nineteenth century, fancy 
pocket flasks and bottles were manufactured in 
the United States. The idea of the decorations 
probably came, in the first place, from the fact that 
English potters were decorating crockery with lo- 
cal subjects, in order to catch the American trade. 
This glassware, however, was wholly the result of 
our own enterprise. The objects here shown were 
blown in engraved metal molds, which had been 
prepared by professional mold cutters. 

Colors and sizes vary too much to be a test of 
age. The scarred base and the sheared neck are 
the surest sign of age. In all the older forms, the 
neck was sheared with scissors, leaving it irregular 
and without finishing band ; also, the base always 
showed a rough, circular scar, left by breaking 
the bottle away from the rod which held it while 
the workman was finishing the neck. 

Smooth and hollow bases were made between 
1850 and 1860 by means of an improvement called 
a "snap" or case, which held the bottle. At 


the same time, a rim was added to the mouth. 
The designs were worked out in transparent white, 
pale blue, sapphire blue, light green, emerald 
green, olive, brown, opalescent, or claret color. 
Twenty-nine of these historic flasks bear for orna- 
ment some form of the American eagle ; nineteen 
different designs display the head of Washington, 
and twelve the head of Taylor. 

Their shapes varied with the passing of time. 
The very earliest were slender and arched in form, 
with edges horizontally corrugated; then came in 
vogue oval shapes, with edges ribbed vertically. 
The next pattern was almost circular in form, with 
plain, rounded edges ; and at this time some speci- 
mens show a color at the mouth. Then appeared 
the calabash, or decanter form, no longer flattened 
and shallow, as the others had been, but almost 
spherical, with edges that showed vertical corruga- 
tion, ribbing, or fluting; with long, slender neck, 
finished with a cap at the top; with smoothly 
hollowed or hollowed and scarred base. 

These were superseded by bottles arched in form, 
deep and flattened, having vertically corrugated 
edges, a short and broad neck, finished with a 
round and narrow heading, and a base either 
scarred or flat. Last of all appeared the modern 


flask shape, also arched in form, with a broad 
shoulder, a narrow base, plainly rounded edges, 
and a return to the flattened and shallow type of 
the earliest manufactures. The neck had a single 
or double beading at the top, and the base was 
either flat or smoothly hollowed. 

All the Kossuth and Jenny Lind bottles were 
made about 1850. The Taylor or Taylor and 
Bragg bottles belong to the period of the Mexican 
War, and were probably blown in 1848. One of 
these bears Taylor's historic command, "A little 
more grape, Captain Bragg," as delivered at the 
battle of Buena Vista. Another has a portrait 
of Washington upon one side, and that of Taylor 
upon the other, with the motto, "Gen. Taylor 
never surrenders." This shows the circular, can- 
teen shape. 

One of the very oldest forms known to have been 
decorated in this country is the one which bears 
in relief a design of the first railroad, represented 
by a horse drawing along rails a four-wheeled 
car heaped with cotton bales and lumps of coal. 
This picture runs lengthwise of the bottle and 
bears the legend "Success to the Railroads" about 
the margin of the panel. This could not have been 
produced earlier than 1825. Some of the Washing- 


ton designs belong to earlier periods, as do the 
eagle and United States flag. Most of the Masonic 
decorations belong between 1840 and 1850. 

The log cabin designs are connected with the 
notable Harrison "hard cider" campaign of 1840, 
as are the inkstands made in the form of log cabins, 
cider barrels, and beehives. The dark brown 
whisky bottles in the shape of a log cabin are 
souvenirs of the same period of political excite- 
ment, and were made by a New Jersey glass firm 
for a certain liquor merchant in Philadelphia. 

The Jackson bottles belong to the period of the 
stormy thirties. The "Hero of New Orleans" 
is represented in uniform, wearing a throat 
cutting collar which entirely obscures his ear. 

A Connecticut firm, in the late sixties, sent out a 
bottle of modern shape, decorated with a double- 
headed sheaf of wheat, with rake and pitchfork, 
having a star below. At about the same time a 
firm in Pittsburg put upon the market a highly 
decorated flask, similarly modern in outline, having 
upon one side an eagle, monument, and flag ; upon 
the reverse, an Indian with bow and arrow, shooting 
a bird in the foreground, with a dog and a tree in 
the background. 

Some bottles of unknown origin were decorated 

PLATE LX. Bohemian Glass. The center one is rare, 
showing figure of Peacock in Red and White ; 
English Cut Glass Wineglasses, 1790; English Glass 
Decanters. Very fine and rare. 

PLATE LXI. Pewter half-pint, pint and quart Measures, one 
hundred years old; Three unusual-shaped Pewter Cream 
Jugs ; German Pewter, Whorl pattern. 


with horns of plenty, vases of flowers, panels of 
fruit, sheaves of wheat, a Masonic arch and em- 
blems, ship and eight-pointed star, and a bold Pikes 
Peak pilgrim with staff and bundle to celebrate 
the passage of the Rocky Mountains. 

Among the early curio bottles shown are numer- 
ous fancy designs in the form of animals, fishes, 
eggs, pickles, canteens, cigars, shells, pistols, 
violins, lanterns, and the like. To this class 
belongs the Moses bottle, which also goes by the 
name of Santa Claus. It is of clear and colorless 
glass, with a string fastened about the neck and 
attached to each end of a stick which crosses 
the top. 

Should the collector enlarge his fad so as to take 
in bottles from foreign lands, he would find that 
his collection would gain much in beauty. In 
the Metropolitan Museum of New York there 
is a very comprehensive exhibit of rare Venetian 
glass bottles and vials, which was the gift of James 
Jackson Jarves. These are the most brilliant and 
elegant types of their kind, graceful and refined, 
dainty and ethereal. 




THERE is a charm about old pewter that is well- 
nigh irresistible to the collector of antiques, its 
odd shapes, mellow tints, and, above all, its rarity, 
luring one in its pursuit. In the days when it was 
in general use, after the decline in favor of the 
wooden trencher, it was but little valued, and 
our forbears quaffed their foaming, home-made 
ale from pewter tankards, and ate their meals from 
pewter dishes with little thought of the promi- 
nence this ware would one day attain, or the prices 
it would command. To-day pewter represents a 
lost art, and the tankards and plates and chargers 
which our ancestors used so carelessly are now 
pursued with untiring energy, and, if secured, are 
treasured as prizes of priceless worth. 

Intrinsically, the metal is of little value, being 

nothing more than an alloy of tin and lead, with 

sometimes a sprinkling of copper, antimony, or 

bismuth, but historically it is hugely interesting. 



Like many other old-time features, records of its 
early history are scanty, affording but little knowl- 
edge of its origin, though proving beyond a doubt 
that it was in use in very early times. When it 
was first used in China and Japan, those countries 
to which we are forced to turn for the origin of so 
many of the old industries, it is impossible to 
ascertain, but it is certain that pewter ware was 
made in China two thousand years ago, and there 
are to-day specimens of Japanese pewter in 
England, known to be all of eleven hundred years 
old, these latter pieces being very like some shown 
in the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Some 
old chroniclers claim that the ware was used by the 
Phoenicians and early Hebrews, and all agree 
that it was manufactured, in certain forms, in 
ancient Rome. Proof positive of this fact was 
gleaned some years ago, when quantities of old 
pewter seals of all shapes and sizes were discovered 
in the county of Westmoreland, in England, where 
they had evidently been left by the Roman legions 
centuries before. It is indeed deplorable that, 
owing to their making excellent solder, all these 
seals should have been destroyed by enterprising 
tinkers in the neighborhood. 
As early as the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 


pewter was produced in quantities in France, 
Germany, Holland, and Switzerland, and a very 
little in Italy and Spain. The year 1550 marked 
the period of the most showy development in the 
first-named country, of which Francis Briot was 
the most celebrated worker. His most noted pro- 
ductions were a flagon and salver, with figures, 
emblems, marks, and strapwork. These exquisite 
pieces were cast in sections, joined together, and 
then finished in the most careful manner, in delicate 
relief. Briot was followed by Gasper Enderlein, 
Swiss, and. by the year 1600 the Nuremberg workers 
entered the field with richly wrought plates and 
platters. France continued to hold high rank in 
pewter manufacture until 1750, after which time 
the quality of her output considerably deterio- 

In the sixteenth century the trade sprang up in 
Scotland, many excellent pieces of the ware being 
produced here, and during the seventeenth century 
Dutch and German pewter came to the fore, 
being considered, during this period, the best 
made. Nuremberg and Ausberg were the cen- 
ters of the industry in Germany, while in 
Scotland, Edinburgh and Glasgow appear to have 
been the chief trade centers. The ware made in 


Spain never seems to have attained any great 
degree of perfection, and records of its progress 
in this country are extremely scarce. Barcelona 
seems to have been the center of the industry, 
but just when or where the craft had its inception, 
research has been unable to disclose. Certain 
it is that no trace of any corporation or guild has 
been found prior to the fifteenth century. 

English pewter dates back as far as the tenth 
century, though few pieces are now in existence 
that antedate the seventeenth century. Here, as 
in other European countries, the ware was at first 
made solely for ecclesiastical purposes, its manu- 
facture for household use not becoming popular 
until many years later. From the twelfth to the 
fifteenth centuries, the ware gradually grew in 
importance through northern Europe, though 
domestic pewter was used only by the clergy and 
nobility up to the fourteenth century. Just when it 
became popular for table and kitchen use is not 
definitely known, though it is certain that it sup- 
planted wooden ware some time in the fifteenth 

Pewter reached the height of its popularity 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
though its use for household purposes continued 


throughout the eighteenth and the first part of the 
nineteenth centuries. In the sixteenth century the 
artistic quality of the ware was greatly improved, 
for by an act of James VI the ware was divided 
into two grades, the best to be marked with a crown 
and hammer, and the second with the maker's 
name. Specimens of this century are to-day ex- 
tremely scarce, those few examples that do remain 
being for the most part found in museums or in 
old English castles, where they have remained in 
the same family from generation to generation. No 
doubt, specimens would have been more plentiful had 
not the greater part of the church plate in England 
and Scotland been destroyed during the Reformation. 
After 1780 pewter was but little used among the 
wealthy classes, except in their kitchens and serv- 
ants' quarters, where it held sway for a considerable 
length of time. In fact, in some of the larger es- 
tablishments, it continued to be used regularly 
until within the last thirty-five years, and even now 
it is used in the servants' hall in two or three of the 
large old country houses. It lingered longest in 
the taverns and inns, and in the London chop- 
houses, being used in the last named until they 
were forced out of business through the introduc- 
tion of coffee palace and tea rooms. 


English pewter differs materially from that made 
in other countries, the workmen employing designs 
characterized by a sturdiness and sedate dignity 
that raised the ware above that made in other 
lands. Almost every conceivable domestic utensil 
was made of pewter as well as garden ornaments, 
and it is interesting to note, in connection with the 
latter, that several urns were designed by the broth- 
ers Adam. 

The history of pewter making in England might 
almost be said to be that of the London Guild or 
Worshipful Company of Pewterers, so closely is 
the ware allied with it. For a long time this 
company or guild controlled the manufacture and 
sale of the ware in England, and during the days of 
its greatest influence it did much to improve the 
quality. At one time it attempted to make 
general the employment and recording or marks, 
but the rule was not enforced, and an excellent 
opportunity of insuring the exact date of manufac- 
ture of a certain piece was thus lost. 

Several private touch marks were registered at 
Pewterers' Hall, but these, together with im- 
portant records that the company had compiled, 
were destroyed in the great London fire of 1666. 
Very few pieces now in existence bear any of these 


touch marks, though occasionally a piece will be 
found that shows the regulation London Guild 
quality mark, a rose with a crown. The touch 
mark was the mark of the maker. This was gener- 
ally his name alone, though sometimes his name 
was combined with some device, like an animal or 

Scotland boasted a guild at Edinburgh that at 
one time enjoyed a fame second only to that of the 
celebrated London Company. Touch plates of the 
pewterers that were registered here are no longer 
in existence, and, indeed, much of the pewter made 
in this country bears no mark at all. The usual 
hallmark was a thistle and a crown, though there 
were several local marks that were frequently used, 
which are sometimes found on Scotch pieces. 

France, too, had its guilds, but they were abol- 
ished by Turgot on the ground that the free right 
to labor was a sacred privilege of humanity. Grad- 
ually the influence of all the guilds was less keenly 
felt, and in time the majority were abolished. After 
this the quality and use of pewter steadily de- 
clined, and with the coming into favor of china and 
other ware, pewter grew to be considered old- 
fashioned, and its use was discontinued during the 
first years of the nineteenth century. 


The old-time metal played a prominent part in 
the first colonial households in America, it being in 
many cases the only available ware, but after 
a time, as the population and strength of the 
young colonies increased, it had to give way, as 
in England, to the introduction and steadily 
increasing popularity of china. During the seven- 
teenth century several English pewterers came to 
America to find employment, settling principally 
in Boston, Salem, and Plymouth County, and 
during the eighteenth century the manufacture 
of the ware here became quite common. It is 
interesting to note that the greater part of the 
American-made pieces bear the name of the maker. 

English and Continental pewter was also exten- 
sively used here, and, in consequence, American 
collections of the present include specimens from 
these countries. Most of the pieces now preserved 
belong to the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries, though there are some few pieces which 
are of earlier manufacture. 

The value of pewter, like all other antiques, 
varies, and a piece is really worth what one can 
obtain for it. In England, the highest prices 
are paid for sixteenth-century pewter, while in 
our own country the product of the eighteenth 


century is that most sought after, and the best 
prices are paid for pieces of this period. Eccle- 
siastical pewter is rare here, and therefore is 
valuable, but it does not hold such high favor in 
the collector's regard as do the simple pieces that 
once graced the quaint dressers in colonial homes. 

The fad for pewter has been productive of much 
imitation ware. This is especially true of certain 
types which are particularly popular, and, indeed, 
were it not for this demand, it would hardly pay to 
imitate the old metal, even at the prices now paid 
for the same. It costs considerable to make up 
spurious bits that are almost entirely like the old- 
time pieces, in composition, and, besides, they 
must be put through several processes to make 
them look old. Consequently, it is safe to assume 
that at the present time the number of imitation 
pieces on the market is comparatively small, and 
in this country there are really few pieces that are 
entirely counterfeit. To be sure, plain pieces of 
the genuine metal are sometimes ornamented to 
increase their value, but lately collectors seem to 
regard plain pieces with the greatest favor, and this 
form of counterfeiting will no doubt soon dis- 

To-day, in America, there is one manufacturer, 


and perhaps more, who is reviving some of the 
original forms and producing pewter reproductions 
which are being put on the market as such. For the 
modern colonial dining-room these are especially 
attractive, serving in every particular the purpose 
of decoration, but to the collector they are of no 

America boasts of several fine collections of this 
ware, especially in the New England states, where 
the chief ports for the trade were located. The 
Bigelow collection at Boston includes, besides 
plates and platters, rare bits of odd design, many 
of them characterized by markings. One such 
piece is a hot-water receptacle, showing a shield 
decoration on which are marked the initials "H. H. 
D." and the date "1796." The lid is ornamented 
with two lines and the initials "R. G." Several 
quaint lamps are other prized possessions in this 
collection, some of them made about 1712, and most 
of them of American manufacture. One of them, 
the smallest of the group, is marked "N. Y. Moli- 
neux." Tankards of the "tappit hen" type are 
also preserved here, though they are not precisely 
the same shape as the measures of Scotch make 
which went by that name ; other pieces included 
in the collection are cream jugs, milk pitchers, 


spoons, forks, a water urn, and several odd tan- 

Equally as interesting is the Caliga collection at 
Salem. Here are to be seen quantities of this 
rare old ware, worked up into almost every con- 
ceivable device, and several of the pieces are num- 
bered among the choicest in the country. A 
squatty little teapot with wooden handle is among 
the most interesting specimens, and its history is in 
keeping with its quaintness. It was secured by 
Mr. Caliga in a little German town during his 
residence abroad, and soon after it came into his 
possession, it was much sought after by a collec- 
tor, who offered a large sum of money for its ac- 
quirement. Mr. Caliga refused to part with it, 
and later he learned that it was indeed a very rare 
piece, being a part of a set which the collector 
was endeavoring to obtain for the Duke of Baden, 
who owned one of the three pieces, the would-be 
purchaser having the second. This teapot has 
for a hallmark an angel ; a quaint sugar bowl of 
like design, also in this collection, shows a crown 
and bird. 

An odd pewter lamp, known as a Jewish or 
Seven Days' lamp, is included in this collection, 
the receptacle for oil being in the lower portion. 


There are two large pewter plates, also, one of 
which has the royal coat of arms in the center, 
and is surrounded by the whorl pattern. These 
plates measure about twenty inches across, and 
one has the hallmark of three angels on the back. 

Perhaps the rarest bit of pewter in existence to- 
day is that owned by a Massachusetts lady. It is of 
Japanese manufacture, and is a family heirloom, 
through generations back. It first came into pos- 
session of the owner's ancestors in 1450; even 
at that date it had a history, and, indeed, its bat- 
tered sides speak eloquently and forcibly of a past. 
It is said to have been the possession of a French 
nobleman, who, for some cause or other, was com- 
pelled to flee from his native land, and who sought 
refuge in England, where he met and married an 
English girl. The precious bit remained with 
his descendants until the year above mentioned, 
when the last of his race, dying without issue, 
bequeathed the old relic to his dearest friend, of 
whom its present owner is a direct descendant. 

But whatever its type and origin, the old ware 
is always interesting. To be sure, even at its 
best it is plain, relying on its form for its pleasing 
appearance, but no other metal better repays its 
owner for the care expended upon it. No doubt 


it costs an effort or two to keep it bright and shin- 
ing, but who does not feel repaid for the time 
and energy expended, when the slow gleams of 
silver-like hue that gradually appear on the sur- 
face greet one in appreciation, like the smile of 
an old friend ! 




THERE is a widespread and growing interest in 
all old silver, especially in such pieces as can be 
traced back to colonial origin. Salem, whose 
commercial prosperity was well established by the 
middle of the seventeenth century, has some won- 
derfully good pieces of colonial silver, many of 
which are family heirlooms. 

The early American silverware, like our early 
furniture and architecture, is thoroughly charac- 
teristic of the tastes and mode of life peculiar to 
that period in America. It is simple in design 
and substantial in weight, thus reflecting the 
mental attitude of the people. Social conditions 
here would not warrant any imitation of the mag- 
nificent baronial silver which was then being made 
and used in England. Many of the pieces in 
these collections come to us hallowed by a hundred 
associations and by traditions recalling the lives 
of our forefathers in all their manifold phases. 
The sight of the silver communion service recalls 


the early history of our New England churches, 
and reminds us of the devotion of the people to 
the institutions about which revolved both the 
social and political life. 

Only the identity of the maker is revealed by 
the hallmark on American silver. There is no 
trace of the date letter, so prevalent upon English 
pieces of the same period, although various em- 
blems appear, which were used as trademarks, 
peculiar to the owner. In cases where the crown 
appears above the initials, it was merely a passing 
fad to copy the mark of certain English silver- 
smiths who enjoyed royal patronage. 

The business of making silverware in the col- 
onies seems to have been profitable from the first. 
The earliest silversmith of whom we have any 
record is John Hull, born in 1624 and dying in 
1683, who amassed much wealth through his 
appointment as mintmaster for Massachusetts 
in the old days of the pine-tree shillings. His 
name, together with that of his daughter Betsey, 
has been immortalized by Hawthorne. 

That Captain Hull did not have a monopoly 

of his trade is proved by the fact that a beaker, 

which was presented to the Dorchester church 

in 1672, was made by one David Jesse. Also, a 



certain Jeremiah Dummer, brother of Governor 
William Dummer, was apprenticed to John Hull, 
to learn the silversmith's trade, in 1659, and sent 
out much work stamped with his own name. He 
also taught his trade to his brother-in-law, John 
Cony, who engraved the plates for the first paper 
money that was ever made in America. 

Most famous of all New England silversmiths 
was Paul Revere. Besides the historic associa- 
tions connected with his name, his works are most 
attractive in themselves, showing an exquisite 
finish and great beauty of workmanship; there 
are no certain marks to distinguish his work from 
that of his father, as each used the stamp "P. 

Of the many silversmiths of New York, none 
are so early in point of time as these New England 
men whom I have mentioned. Not until the 
middle of the eighteenth century did a certain 
George Ridout come over from London, and set 
up business "near the Ferry stairs." He has left 
us beautiful candlesticks, marked with his name, 
and by these he is remembered. At about the 
same time Richard Van Dyck, tracing his lineage 
to the Knickerbockers, made very handsome flat- 
chased bowls, and Myer Myers, seemingly of 


similar origin, set his stamp upon finely propor- 
tioned pint cans, having an ear-shaped handle 
and a pine-cone finial. 

At a later date, shortly subsequent to the Revo- 
lution, a silversmith named Tragees made beau- 
tiful sugar bowls with urn-shaped finials ; and 
Gary Dunn, who held a position in the custom- 
house, designed exquisitely engraved teapots, hav- 
ing the cover surmounted by a pineapple as the 
emblem of hospitality. These early makers 
stamped their names plainly upon their work, 
so that the task of approximating their age is 
thus rendered easy. 

In most families silver spoons of various pat- 
terns have been preserved for generations. Some 
of these were brought from England with other 
treasures of family silver, and are excellent ex- 
amples of seventeenth-century ware. Up to that 
time, teaspoons had been made with very deep 
round or pear-shaped bowls and very short handles. 
Toward the middle of the seventeenth century, 
they assumed more nearly their present form, 
having handles twice as long as they had previ- 
ously possessed, and bowls oval or elliptical. The 
new style was sometimes dubbed the "rat-tail 
spoon," in derisive comment upon its long and 



PLATE LXIII. Several old Silver pieces ; Collection of Salem 
Silver, almost all inherited; Wonderfully fine Silver Bowl. 


slender handle. It will be observed that many 
of our earliest teaspoons were no larger than the 
present after-dinner coffee spoons. 

It is probable that no other type of spoon pos- 
sesses the interest, not to say the money value, 
of the old Apostle spoons, which came into fashion 
in the sixteenth century. At that time it was an 
English custom for the sponsors to present these 
spoons, as baptismal gifts, to the children for 
whom they made themselves responsible. A 
wealthy godparent would give a complete set of 
thirteen, but a poor man generally contented him- 
self with giving simply the one spoon which bore 
the figure of the child's patron saint. 

The complete set consisted of the "Master" 
spoon and twelve others. The "Master" spoon 
has upon the handle a figure of Christ, holding in 
one hand the sphere and cross, while the other 
hand is extended in blessing. A nimbus sur- 
rounds the head, in all these spoons. Each apostle 
is distinguished by some emblem. Saint Paul 
has a sword, Saint Thomas a spear, and Saint 
Andrew a cross. Saint Matthias carries an ax 
or halberd, Saint Jude a club, Saint Bartholomew 
a butcher's knife, and Saint Philip a long staff 
with a cross in the T. Saint Peter appears with a 


key, Saint James the Greater with a pilgrim's 
staff, Saint James the Less with a fuller's hat, 
and Saint Matthew with a wallet. Saint John 
has one hand raised in blessing, while the other 
holds the cup of sorrow. 

Whole sets of these spoons are very rare. In 
fact, there are said to be but two whole sets in 
existence, with another set of eleven. One of 
these sets sold in 1903 for twenty-four thousand 
five hundred dollars, while another set of less an- 
cient date brought five thousand three hundred 
dollars. A single Apostle spoon, bearing upon its 
handle a figure of Saint Nicholas, and upon its 
stem the inscription, "Saint Nicholas, pray for 
us," sold in London for three thousand four hun- 
dred and fifty dollars, a few years ago. This is 
said to be the highest price ever paid for one single 

The oldest hallmarked Apostle spoon is dated 
1493, while the most modern of which we have any 
record bears the date of 1665. It is probable that 
the custom of giving these baptismal presents 
began to go out of fashion at that period. 

Other spoons of great interest, although not so 
old as the earliest Apostle spoons, are the curious 
little "caddy spoons," which came into vogue 



with the first popularity of tea drinking more 
than two centuries ago. The tea was at first 
kept in canisters, whose lids served as a measure. 
Then came into use the quaint and dainty tea 
caddy, with its two-lidded and metal-lined end 
compartments, and a central cavity to be used as 
a sugar bowl. A favorite and poetic custom of 
the old sea captains, upon visiting China, was to 
have their ships painted upon China caddies by 
Chinese artists, as gifts for wives or sweethearts 
at home. 

Now since the sugar bowl was a part of the tea 
caddy, the use of the caddy spoon or scoop became 
immediately popular. All of these spoons have 
very short stems and handles, with bowls of fan- 
ciful design, perforated, or shell-shaped, or fluted. 
A few were made like miniature scoops, with 
handles of ebony; while others were perfect imi- 
tations of leaves, the leaf stem curling around 
into a ring, to make the handle. 

In this country, caddy spoons came into use 
after the Revolution. Until very recently, they 
have been neglected by collectors, and were to be 
bought at a low figure ; but all that is changed, 
and the price is from fifteen dollars upward in 
most cases, besides which the purchaser must 


take his chances as to the genuine worth of his 
bargain, as many imitations are being put upon 
the market. It is no proof of genuine worth that 
the spoon may be bought in an antique shop on 
a quiet street of some sleepy old seaport town. 
This is just the spot likely to be chosen for per- 
petrating a fraud. The most common counter- 
feit is made by joining a perfectly new bowl to 
the handle of a genuine Georgian teaspoon that 
bears an irreproachable hallmark. The unusual 
length of handle betrays the cheat, which can be 
further proved by the presence of a flattened spot 
similar to a thumb print, where the bowl joins the 

Still another fraudulent specimen has a false 
hallmark. These counterfeits were probably 
made outside of this country, perhaps not even 
in England. The hallmark is the stamp of a head 
that bears no particular resemblance to George 
III, for whom it is possibly intended ; a lion that 
may, perhaps, be near enough in design to pass 
for the royal British brute ; and signs and letters, 
half-effaced, which, in conjunction with the king's 
head and the lion, make up an imitation of the 
Birmingham hallmark. Of course it would not 
deceive, for an instant, the experienced buyer in 


a good clear light ; but the shops are often dark- 
ened to a kind of twilight, and the inexperienced 
amateur detects nothing wrong about the spoon, 
which is usually made after some uncommon and 
attractive style. 

As this fraud is of recent date, no examination 
would be necessary for spoons known to have 
been in a certain family for some years. These 
spoons were made of Wedgwood ware, china, glass, 
agate, or tortoise-shell, as well as of silver. There 
are beautiful silver ones in the shape of a hand or 
of a flower. In two cases, I have seen the spoon 
made to match the caddy. One of these sets was 
of decorated china, and the other of tortoise- 
shell set in silver. 

Another spoon, which passed out of date with 
the caddy ladle, was the so-called caudle spoon. 
It might be well to explain to the present genera- 
tion that caudle was a preparation of wine, eggs, 
and spices which was commonly fed to invalids, 
in the latter part of the eighteenth century. The 
caudle spoon, perforated or entire, but with a 
longer handle and smaller bowl than the caddy 
spoon, was employed to stir the mixture. It is 
now obsolete, as is the snuff spoon, another relic 
of the whimsical customs of yore. There was a 


season when it was stylish to carry a snuffbox, 
and to take a pinch one's self, now and then, or to 
offer it to a friend. The snuff spoon was used to 
avoid dipping the fingers into the powder, which 
would of course stain both finger nails and cuticle. 

As the caddy was the companion piece of the 
caddy spoon, so the caudle bowl is associated with 
the caudle spoon. A Salem specimen stands six 
inches high, and has a capacity of three pints. It 
has two handles, and is embellished by a broad 
chasing at the base, and by fluted chasing about 
the body. The caudle cup used with it is severely 
plain, but has a good outline. 

Tankards both with and without covers were 
in common use, toward the close of the seventeenth 
century. In size, they varied from a capacity 
of one quart to three. They were often fitted with 
a whistle, by the blowing of which the butler's 
attention could be called to the fact that the tank- 
ard needed filling. From this custom arose the 
old saying, "Let him whistle for it." The singu- 
lar expression, "A plate of ale" comes from the 
fact that in old inventories, tankards are listed 
as "ale plates." 

The largest Salem specimen has a capacity of 
one quart only, and is beautifully chased around 


the body and upon the cover in a rose-and-pine- 
apple design. This chasing is much worn, not 
only by the passage of time, but also by the piti- 
less polishing of the methodical New England 
housekeeper. This is a straight-sided tankard, 
with a well-curved top, which necessitates a long 
and tapering thumb piece. The handle is large 
and well-tapered, extending well above the rim. 
All these specimens belong to the Revolutionary 

The style of silver made and used in this country 
during the first half of the nineteenth century is 
well typified by the sugar, creamer, and teapot 
contained in an old-time collection. The teapot 
and sugar bowl are adorned with a pineapple 
finial. This style was originated by Gary Dunn 
of New York at the close of the Revolution, and 
won immense popularity. The pineapple, which 
is its most notable decoration, has always been 
accepted as the emblem of hospitality; while the 
primrose pattern about base and body is neat and 
tasteful. The lines in these designs are less se- 
verely simple than in some, but are excellent, 

Another favorite style of this same period is 
shown in a graceful little pitcher in another col- 


lection, having for sole ornament a rosette where 
the handle joins the body. Rosettes were high 
in favor in the early part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and were shown in the furniture of that day 
as well as in the silverware. 

Another charming pitcher which stands upon 
three legs is a veritable prize, literally as well as 
figuratively. During the War of 1812, our Salem 
privateers seized many a valuable cargo. Among 
the confiscated treasures was this dainty little 
silver pitcher, handsomely engraved, and bearing 
the coat of arms of a prominent English family. 
In the division of the confiscated goods, this ar- 
ticle fell to an ancestor of the owner, who received 
it by inheritance. 

Another interesting bit of silver, belonging to 
the same period as the pitcher, is a cruet stand. 
Fifty years ago these were in common use upon 
the tables of our ancestors. Fashion has rele- 
gated them to the sideboard or to the top shelf, 
where the old-fashioned, high silver cake basket 
keeps them company in exile. To the same period 
belongs the teapot showing a rosette bowl, and 
mushroom-shaped finial, which was among the 
bride's presents at a wedding in 1804, while the 
sugar and creamer included in the same collec- 



tion belong to a later date, as they were bridal 
presents received in 1867. The beauty of the 
lines in these two specimens falls far short of the 
standard set by American manufacturers of co- 
lonial times. 

Still in use and highly prized is the wonderful 
old bowl which is in another collection. For many 
years this bowl was lost, and though diligent search 
was made for it, it was not discovered until one 
day the owner and some friends, riding through a 
rural district, stopped at a well in a farmhouse yard 
for a drink. Close at hand a pig was eating from 
a peculiar-looking receptacle, which, though black- 
ened and mud-stained, yet showed an interesting 
contour. Negotiations were entered into with 
the house owner for the purchase of this recep- 
tacle, and it was secured for twenty-five cents. 
When polished, it was found to be the long-missing 
bowl, which has since then been called the hog 

Other specimens still preserved include a tall 
sugar bowl, mounted upon a standard, which is 
more than a hundred years old, as are the tongs 
used with it, with their delicate acorn-cup pattern. 
In the larger piece, the rings which form the 
handles pass through the mouth of a dog's head, 



upon each side. The feet which support the stand- 
ard suggest the work done in the furniture of that 
day by Chippendale, Sheraton, and their followers. 
To the latter days of the eighteenth century be- 
long an endless yet interesting variety of patterns 
of porringers, salvers, sugar bowls, perforated 
baskets for loaf sugar, tea and coffee pots, and in- 
numerable table utensils. 

Another article which is now found but rarely 
is the nutmeg holder or spice box. The interior 
of the lid was roughed for use as a grater, and few 
were the "night caps" but had a final touch added 
through its use. While the usefulness of the spice 
box and the snuffbox has long since passed away, 
yet they are treasured because of the pictures 
they bring to the mind's eye of the old days of the 
Georges. No product of the present can outvie 
the charms of such old silver. 

All things colonial, whether house or accessory, 
are distinctive, and to the designers and crafts- 
men of that period the world owes a debt that no 
amount of tribute can ever wholly repay. Co- 
lonial is synonymous of the best, and objects 
created during its influence are always of a higher 
degree of perfection than the best of other periods. 
Looking about for a reason for this, we are con- 


fronted with the realization that the work of that 
time was carefully planned and carefully finished, 
craftsmen giving to their output the best their 
brains could devise, and allowing no reason, how- 
ever urgent, to interfere with the completion of a 
certain object as they had originally planned it to 
be. Therein lies the real reason of the superiority 
of things colonial. Later-day artisans sacrificed 
quality to quantity; they complied with the de- 
mand of public opinion, and as that demand be- 
came more urgent, carelessness of detail became 
more marked. The simplicity of the colonial 
era gave way to the highly decorative and often 
ugly ornamentation characteristic of late nine- 
teenth-century manufacture, and it was not until 
a few craftsmen found courage to revive colonial 
features that the beauty of that type of construc- 
tion was truly appreciated. To-day, colonial in- 
fluence is again dominant, and it is a relief to note 
that in modern homes it is usurping in favor its 
hitherto prized successors. It is only to be hoped 
that its influence will be lasting, for surely of all 
types it is the most worthy of emulation. 



Abbot, General, 25. 

house, 78, 109, 153. 
Adam brothers, 98, 103, 128, 140, 215. 
Adams, Abraham, 95, 138. 

family, 95, 138. 

John, 88. 

the decorator, 69. 
Albree, John, 152. 
Alden, John, in. 
Allen, John Fiske, 51. 

house, 51, 52. 

of Lowestoft, 182. 
Amesbury, Mass., 37. 
Andirons, 67-69. 
Andrews, John, 21, 101. 

house, 13, 21, 84, 85. 
"Angel Gabriel" (ship), 102. 
Appleton, John, 163. 
Architects, English, 8. 
Architecture, Dutch, 2. 

Gothic, 4. 

Architrave, decoration of, 18. 
Argand, Mons., 168. 
Assembly house, 18, 24. 
Atkinson collection, 200. 
Ausberg, Germany, 212. 
Austria, 197. 

Bagnall, Benjamin, 147. 

Samuel, 148. 
Barcelona, Spain, 213. 
Barnard, Dr. Thomas, 81. 
Bartol, Dr. Cyrus, 81. 
Bavaria, 196. 
Bay of Biscay, 135. 
Bedrooms, 122, 125. 

Beds, accessories of, 124. 

Adam, 128. 

antique, 120. 

bunk, 126, 127. 

carved, 27. 

Chippendale, 127, 128. 

cupboard, 122, 126. 

Egyptian, 121. 

Field, 131. 

Flemish, 121. 

folding, 127. 

four-poster, 123-131. 

"Great Bed of Ware," 122, 123. 

Greek, 121. 

hangings, 124. 

Hepplewhite, 128, 130. 

inlaid, 128. 

mahogany, 127. 

oak, 122. 

paneled, 127. 

"Presse," 126, 127. 

primeval, 121. 

Queen Anne, 126. 

Roman, 121. 

Sheraton, 128. 

"slaw-back," 127. 

"Wild Bill" or one-poster, 126. 
Benson house, 109. 
Bigelow collection, 219. 
Billingsley, William, 187. 

roses, 187. 
Bishop, Bridget, 26. 
Black Point, Maine, 43. 
Blankets, home-made, 124. 
Bloor, Robert, 188. 
Bohemia, 196, 197. 



Boston, Mass., 5, 43, 7i 74, 147, 

bowl, 232. 

148, 149, 217, 219. 

cup, 232. 

Bottles, 203, 205-209. 

spoon, 231. 

arched, 206. 

Candles, 159, 160-165. 

bases of, 205. 

bayberry, 164. 

calabash, 206. 

dip, 165. 

canteen, 207. 

makers, 166. 

circular, 206. 

making, 163, 164, 165. 

curio, 209. 

molds, 165. 

decorated, 207-209. 

sperm, 163. 

designs on, 206. 

suet, 161. 

flask, 207. 

tallow, 161, 165. 

Jackson, 208. 

wickless, 161. 

Jenny Lind, 207. 

Candlesticks, 159, 167. 

Kossuth, 207. 

brass, 167. 

liquor, 208. 

iron, 167. 

Moses, 209. 

pewter, 167. 

oldest American, 207. 

silver, 167. 

oval, 206. 

tin, 167. 

rim of, 206. 

Cape Cod, 42. 

Santa Claus, 209. 

Capen house, 55. 

signs of age in, 205. 

Carving, art of, 18. 

spherical, 206. 

Ceilings, low, 3. 

Taylor and Bragg, 207. 

raftered, 66. 

Venetian, 209. 

Cellar, large, 10. 

Bow, England, 183, 186. 

Chairs, arm, 94, 98. 

Bradford, Governor, quoted, 42. 

banister-back, 94. 

Bricks, Dutch, 9. 

brass mounted, 101. 

gray-faced, 13, 14. 

carved, 95, 98, 99, 100. 

Briot, Francis, 212. 

Chinese type, 98, 99. 

Bristol, R. I., 12, 60, 101, 131. 

Chippendale, 97, 98. 

Brown Inn, 173. 

comb back, 97. 

Bumstead, 6, 80. 

Dutch, 95, 98. 

Byfield, Mass., 95, 126, 138, 173. 

early colonial, 93. 

Empire type, 101, 102. 

Cabins, log, 2. 

fan back, 97. 

Cabot, Mr., 141. 

forms, 93. 

house, 7, 22, 53. 

French types, 98, 100. 

Joseph, 7, 22. 

heart-back, 100. 

Caliga collection, 220. 

Hepplewhite, 97, 99, 100. 

Cambridge, Mass., 37. 

inlaid, 100. 

Candelabra, 167, 169, 170. 

japanned, too. 

Candle, 231. 

Louis the Fifteenth type, 98. 

[2 4 0] 


Chairs, Martha Washington, 101. 

painted, 95, 97, 102. 

ribbon-back, 98. 

rocking, 94. 

rush seated, 95. 

settles, 93. 

Sheraton, 97, 100, 101. 

shield-back, 100. 

slat-back, 94. 

stuffed easy, 96. 

turned, 93. 

Windsor, 96, 97. 
Chandeliers, 169. 
Chelsea, England, 183, 186. 
Chests, 105-110. 

drop handle, 109. 

hand-carved, 107. 

highboys, 109, no. 

imported, 106, 107. 

legs of, 1 08. 

linen, 108. 

lowboys, 109, no. 

"magic," 107. 

mahogany, 106. 

on frames, 108. 

"owld pine," 106, 107. 

size of, 106. 

use of, 106. 

with drawers, 107. 
Chimney pots, 19. 
Chimneys, catted, 2. 

central, 7. 
China, Empire of, 80, 181, 184, 185, 

211, 229. 
China, 172, 216. 

caddies, 229. 

cream ware, 191. 

Crown Derby, 182, 186-188. 

Delft, 177-180, 185. 

jasper, 191. 

Lowestoft, 175, 181-185. 

luster, 191. 

salt glaze, 173, 174. 

Staffordshire, 173-176. 
toby jugs, 175-177- 
Wedgwood, 189-191. 
Chippendale (designer), 92, 97, 98, 
99, 112, 114, 127, 128, 136, 140, 
146, 236. 
Choate, Joseph, 22. 
'Christmas Carol," 22. 
Claudius, Emperor, 145. 
Clocks, American, 146, 148, 150, 151, 

Bagnall, 147. 
banjo, 149. 
"birdcage," 153. 
cases, 151. 
Chippendale, 146. 
construction of, 149, 150, 152, 154, 

155, 156- 

Doolittle, 148. 

first, 145. 

grandfather's, 151, 153. 

hangings, 150. 

"lantern," 153. 

Makers' union, 146. 

making in Salem, 150. 

musical, 148. 

of Europe, 146. 

one-day, 157. 

patent shelf, 153, 154. 

pillar scroll top case, 155. 

Sheraton, 146. 

striking, 148. 

table, 151. 

Terry, 150, 153. 

"wag-at-the-wall," 153. 

wall and bracket, 151, 153. 

water, 145. 

weaver's, 152. 

wick, 145. 

Willard, 148, 149. 
Coal, discovery of, 75. 

first use of, 74. 
Cogswell house, 125. 



Collections, Atkinson, 200. 

Bigelow, 219. 

Caliga, 220. 

Hosmer, 147. 

Mansfield, Nathaniel B., 109. 

Metropolitan Museum, 209. 

Middleton, n, 131. 

Mitchell, 199-200. 

Page, 175, 180. 

Rogers, 191. 

Waters, 93, 102, 108, 202. 

West, 189, 202. 
Colonial products, superiority of, 

236, 237. 
Columns, Corinthian, 12. 

Grecian, 17. 

plain, 21, 122. 
Common, Salem, 21, 25. 
Cook, Captain Samuel, 77. 

Dr. Elisha, 15. 
Cony, John, 225. 
Counterpane, homespun, 125. 
Craigie house, 37. 
Crowell, Rev. Robert, 125. 
Crown Derby, 182. 

" Bloor-Derby," 188. 

decline of, 188. 

early output of, 186. 

epoch par excellence, 187. 

factory, 186, 187, 188. 
Crowninshield house, 38, 71. 
Cupboards, colonial, i, 72. 

shell-top, 173. 
Cupola, 9. 

Danvers, Mass., 5, 10, 19, 44, 46, 49, 


Delft, Holland, 178, 179. 
Delft ware, best examples of, 179. 

decline of Dutch, 179, 180. 

Dutch, 177, 178, 179, 180. 

English, 178, 180. 

first potteries, 1 79. 

old, 177. 

origin of, 178. 

plates, 180. 

tiles, 180. 
Derby, Elias Hasket, farm, 47, 49, 50. 

Elias Hersey, 50. 

house, 77, 78. 
Desks, bookcase, 112. 

bureau, in. 

Chippendale secretary, 112. 

French Empire, 113. 

Hepplewhite secretary, 112. 

"scrutoir," no, in. 

Sheraton secretary, 112. 
Devereux, Humphrey, house, 52. 
Dexter, "Lord" Timothy, house, 


Dickens, Charles, quoted, 39. 
Doolittle, Enos, 148. 
Doorways, narrow, 22, 25. 

pineapple, 27. 
Downing, Emanuel, 4. 

George, 4. 

"Dr. Grimshaw's Secret," 24. 
Dressing tables, 109. 
Duesbury, William and son, 186, 187, 


Duke of Baden, 220. 
Duke of Devonshire's house, 39. 
Dummer, Governor William, 225. 

house, 173. 

Jeremiah, 225. 

Dunbarton, N. H., 8, 130, 151. 
Dunn, Gary, 226, 233. 
Dutch architecture, 2. 

East India Company, 185. 

ware, 177, 178, 179, 180. 

East Windsor, Conn., 150. 
Edinburgh, Scotland, 212, 216. 
Elector of Brandenburg, 200. 
Elizabethan period, 4. 
Embargo, the, u. 

[2 4 2] 


Enderlein, Gasper, 212. 

Endicott, Governor John, 2, 4, 44, 


farm, 44. 
house, 10. 

England, 2, 3, 8, 9, 35, 39, 41, 43, 64, 
80, 82, 86, 128, 134, 135, 136, 
139, 142, 147, 152, 157, 161, 167, 

174, 183, 185, 201, 202, 203, 211, 
214, 215, 217, 221, 223, 226, 230. 

Etruria factory, 190. 
Exeter, England, 146. 

Fabens, Mr., 71. 

Faulkner, Dr. G., 149. 

"Feast of Roses," 205. 

Fell, Judge Jesse, 75. 

Felt, Captain Jonathan P., 49. 

Felt's Annals, quoted, 150. 

Fenders, 75, 76, 77. 

Fireback, 71-72. 

Firedogs, 66. 

Fire frames, 73-74. 

Fireplace, accessories, 65, 66, 67. 

brass, 77. 

colonial, 64, 65. 

construction of, 65. 

Elizabethan, 64. 

Gove, 70. 

inglenook, 64. 

Louis Sixteenth, 64. 

modern, 63, 64. 

of Middle Ages, 63. 

of Renaissance, 63, 64. 

Queen Anne, 64. 

Robinson, 71. 

soapstone, 78. 

tiled, 76. 
Fire sets, 66, 67. 
Flint and steel, 170. 
Floor, sanded, 66. 
Forrester house, 21. 
France, 80, 86, 135, 167, 212. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 94. 
stores, 73, 74, 75, 76. 

Gardens, n, 13, 41. 

Allen, 51, 52. 

at Indian Hill, 48. 

at Oak Knoll, 47. 

Cabot, 53. 

Captain Peabody's, 46. 

Derby, 50. 

features of old-fashioned, 44, 45. 

Humphrey Devereux, 52. 

location of, 45, 46, 51. 

Mrs. Perry's, 48. 

nucleus of, 43. 

of George Heussler, 49, 50. 

Salem, 49. 
Gardiner house, 21. 
George house, 141. 
George II, 96. 
George III, 69, 100, 230. 
Georgetown, Mass., 83, 107. 
Georgian period, 127. 
Gerard, quoted, 44. 
Germantown, Mass., 163. 
Germany, 197, 212. 
Gibbon (designer), 143. 
Glasgow, Scotland, 212. 
Glass, baluster stem, 202. 

beads, 203. 

blown, 205. 

Bohemian, 195, 197-199, 204. 

bonbon dishes, 200. 

bottles, 203, 205-209. 

bowls, 203, 204. 

cameo incrusted, 199. 

choiceness determined, 103. 

colored, 197, 201. 

cutting of, 198. 

decanters, 200, 201, 202. 

drinking, 201. 

English, 201. 

engraved, 196, 197, 198, 202. 



Glass, etched, 199. 

factories, 197, 198, 204. 

first made, 194. 

French, 199. 

gilded, 196, 197. 

goblets, 204. 

green German, 196. 

historic flasks, 206. 

legend of, 196. 

making in Rome, 195. 

origin of, 195. 

painted, 196, 197. 

Portland Vase, 192, 195. 

ruby colored, 199-200. 

Russian, 203. 

salt cellar, 199, 200. 

toddy, 201, 202. 

tumblers, 201-202. 

vases, 198, 199. 

Venetian, 195, 198. 

white twist stem, 202. 

wine, 202. 

Glastonbury Abbey, 146. 
Gothic architecture, 4. 
Gove house, 70. 
Governor's Field, 4. 

Island, 42. 
Grafton, Mass., 148. 
"Guild of St. Luke," 179. 

Hallway, Capen house, 55. 
colonial, 54. 
eighteenth and nineteenth 

tury, 56, 57. 
entry, 61. 
finish of, 59. 

"Hey Bonnie Hall," 60, 61. 
Lee, 58, 60. 
Old English, 55, 58. 
paneled, 56, 57, 59- 
papered, 59. 
spacious, 57, 58. 
Stark, 56. 

Warner, 56, 57, 90-91. 

Wentworth, 58, 59. 
Hamilton, Mass., 71. 
Hamilton Hall, 141, 166. 
Hangings, bed, chintz, 124. 

linen, 124. 

patch, 124, 130. 
Harland, Thomas, 150. 
Harris, Mrs. Walter L., 136. 
Harrod house, 138, 203. 
Hartford, Conn., 147, 148. 
Harvard College, 4. 
Haverhill, Mass., 76, 129. 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 24, 26, 37, 

102, 224. 
Heard house, 93. 
Hearth accessories, 66, 67. 
Hepplewhite (designer), 92, 97, 99, 

ico, no, 112, 114, 115, 128. 
"Hermitage," 87. 
Heussler, George, 49. 
" Hey Bonnie Hall," 11,60,61, 101. 
Higginson, Governor, 161. 

Rev. Francis, quoted, 41. 
"Highfield," 95, 126, 138. 
High Rock, Mass., 95. 
Hillsboro, N. H., 89, 90, 115, 151. 
Hinges, wrought-iron, 9. 
Hingham, Mass., 93. 
"History of Essex," 125. 
Hoadley, Silas, 155. 
Hoffman, Captain, 52. 
Holland, 2, 9, 41, 43, 80, 96, 135, 177, 
179, 180, 182, 184, 185, 196, 2ia. 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 130. 
Hosmer collection, 147. 
"House of Seven Gables," 37. 
Houses, Abbot, General, 78, 109, 153. 

Albree, 152. 

Allen, 52. 

Andrews, 13, 21, 84, 85. 

Assembly, 18, 24. 

Bell or Brick, 190. 



Houses, Benson, 109. 

Maryland Manor, u. 

brick, 3, 13, 14, 19, 56. 

May, 37. 

Brown Inn, 173. 

Meyer, 71. 

Cabot, 7, 22, 53. 

Middleton, 131. 

Capen, 55. 

Mount Vernon, 131. 

Cogswell, 125. 

Nichols, 200. 

colonial, 7. 

Noyes, 113. 

Craigie, 37. 

Oak Knoll, 47, 60. 

Crowninshield, 38, 71. 

of 52 rooms, 10. 

Derby, 77, 78. 

Oliver, 77. 

Devereux, Humphrey, 52. 

Osgood, 109, 143, 168. 

Devonshire's, Duke of, 39. 

Page, 5, 6. 

Dexter, 99. 

Pickering, 4, 5, 72, 76, 109. 

Dummer, 173. 

Pierce, 89, 115, 151. 

Endicott, 10. 

Pierce-Jahonnot, 25. 

finest, 8. 

Pierce-Nichols, 139. 

Forrester, 21. 

Robinson, 71. 

frame, 2, 55. 

Ropes, in. 

gambrel-roofed, 3, 10, 19, 55. 

Salem Club, 70. 

Gardiner, 21. 

Saltonstall-Howe, 76. 

George, 141. 

Sanders, 70. 

Gove, 70. 

Silsbee, 21. 

Hamilton Hall, 141, 166. 

Southern, 12. 

Harrod, 138, 203. 

Sprague, 169. 

Heard, 93. 

Stark, 8, 56, 115, 130, 151. 

"Hermitage," 87. 

Stearns, 6. 

"Hey Bonnie Hall," 11,60,61,101. 

Steigel, 204. 

"Highfield," 95, 126, 138. 

Warner, 9, 56, 90, 109, 169. 

historic, 5, 6, 8, 12. 

Waters, 38, 77, 202. 

Howe, in, 115, 129. 

Wentworth, 10, 58. 

"Indian Hill," 12, 48. 

Wheelright, 88. 

Johnson's, Dr., 39. 

Whipple, 7, 25, 87. 

Kimball, 18, 83. 

White House, n. 

Kittredge, 142, 201. 

Whittier, 37, 47, 60. 

Knapp, 87. 

Howe, Mrs. Guerdon, HI. 

Lee, 8, 58, 60, 87, 89. 

house, in, 115, 129. 

Lindall- Andrews, 80, 81. 

Hull, Betsey, 224. 

Little, 70. 

John, 224. 

log cabin, 2. 

Long, 93. 

Ince (designer), 98. 

Lord, 22, 138, 139, 142. 

"Indian Hill," 12, 48. 

Mansfield, 71. 

Indians, 203. 

mansion, 3, 8, 10, 19, 56. 

Ipswich, Mass., 5, 7, 93. 



Ironworks, American, 204. 

Italy, 135, 197, 212. 

Ivy Works, Burslem, 190. 

Jackson, Andrew, 87. 

of Battersea, 81. 
Jacobean period, 127. 
Jamaica Plain, Mass., 169. 
James VI, 214. 
Jamestown, Va., 203. 
Japan, 80, 179, 211. 
Jarves, James Jackson, 209. 
Jerome, Chauncey, 157. 
Jesse, David, 224. 
Johnson's, Dr., house, 39. 
Josslyn, John, quoted, 43. 

Kean, Michael, 188. 
Kensington, Philadelphia, 203. 
Kimball house, 18, 83. 
King Philip's War, 116. 
Kitchen, colonial, 66. 
Kittredge house, 142, 201. 
Knapp house, 87. 
Knockers, antique, 35. 

brass, 22, 30, 33, 34. 

disappearance of, 31. 

eagle, 35, 36, 37. 

English, 9. 

fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, 

garland, 35. 

Georgian urn, 35, 36. 

Gothic, 33. 

historic, 37. 

horseshoe, 36. 

invention of, 29. 

iron, 7, 30, 33, 36. 

lion and ring, 35. 

London, 38-39. 

May house, 37, 38. 

medieval, 33. 

Mexican, 36. 

plate or escutcheon, 33, 34. 

price of, 34. 

Renaissance, 33, 37. 

reproductions of, 34. 

thumb latch, 8, 22, 35, 38. 

types of, 29. 
Knox, General, 25. 

Henry, 138. 
Kunckel (artist), 200. 

Lafayette, General, 24. 
Lamps, Betty, 162. 

glass, 168. 

unique specimen, 162. 

whale-oil, 166. 

wick, 162. 

with glass prisms, 169, 170. 
Lanterns, 162. 

gilded, 168. 

painted, 168. 
Larcom, Lucy, 6. 
Latches, thumb, 8, 22, 35, 38. 
Lean-to, 3, 7. 
Lee, Colonel Jeremiah, house, 8, 58, 

60, 87, 89. 
Leghorn, Italy, 131. 
Lehmann, Gasper, 198. 
Leslie's Retreat, 7, 81. 
Leverett, Governor John, 115. 

Thomas, 15. 
Lightfoot, Peter, 146. 
Lights, candelabra, 167, 169. 

candle, 159, 160, 161, 163-166. 

candlewood, 159, 160, 161. 

chandeliers, 169. 

electric, 159. 

fire, 159, 160. 

from flint and steel, 170. 

gas, 159- 

lamp, 162, 169. 

lantern, 162, 168. 

pine torch, 159, 160. 

rush, 162. 

[2 4 6] 


Lindall, Judge, 80. 
Lindall-Andrews house, 80, 81. 
Little, Hon. David M., house, 70. 
Little Harbor, N. H., 10, 58. 
London, 167, 214, 215, 225. 
London Guild or Worshipful Com- 
pany of Pewterers, 215. 
Long, Hon. John D., 93. 

house, 93. 

Longfellow, Anne Sewall, 95. 
Lord, Nathaniel, 23. 

house, 22, 138, 139, 142. 
Lowestoft, 181, 1 86. 

coat-of-arms, 183. 

controversy, 185. 

decoration of, 183, 184. 

factory, 182, 184, 185. 

first ware, 182. 

Holland, 182. 

Oriental, 181. 

red, 183. 
Luster ware, 191. 

copper, 192, 193. 

gold, 192, 193. 

jugs, 192. 

silver-tinted, 192. 

Sunderland, 192. 
Lynn, Mass., 72, 95, 175, 193- 

Macpheadris, Captain, 9. 

Mary, 9. 
Mclntyre, Samuel, 18, 47, 69, 70, 

71, 77, 140. 

Manchester, Mass., 56, 199, 200. 
Mannheim, Germany, 204. 

Pa., 204. 
Mansfield, Mrs. Nathaniel B., 71. 

collection, 109. 
Mantlepieces, 63, 64, 70. 

in Little house, 70. 

marble, 70. 

narrow, 64. 

Oliver house, 77. 

Renaissance, 64. 

Salem Club, 70. 

Sanders house, 70. 
Man waring (designer), 98. 
Marblehead, Mass., 8, 60, 81, 87, 135. 

Historical Society, 89. 
Marseilles, France, 146. 
Maryland Manor, n. 
"Mayflower," the, in. 
Mayhew (designer), 98. 
May house, 37. 
Merchant princes, 19. 
Metropolitan Museum, 209. 
Mexican War, 207. 
Meyer, Hon. George von L., 71. 
Middleton, Moses, n. 

collection, n, 131. 

house, 131. 

Militia, first company of, 7. 
Mills, Henry, 153. 
Mirrors, Adam, 140. 

Bilboa, 135. 

bull's-eye, 140. 

Chippendale, 136, 140. 

Constitution, 137. 

"Courtney," 143. 

frames, 134. 

girandole, 140, 141. 

glass, 134. 

knobs, 137. 

Lafayette, 143. 

late colonial, 141, 142. 

mantel, 139-140. 

metal, 133, 134. 

origin of, 133. 

paneled, 141, 142, 143. 

Queen Anne, 136. 

Venetian, 134, 142. 

with cornice overhanging, 138, 141. 
Mitchell collection, 199-200. 
Money, first paper, 225. 
Mount Vernon, 131. 
Mulliken, Samuel, 150. 



Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 211. 
Myers, Myer, 225. 

Nashville, Term., 87. 

Newburyport, Mass., 48, 49, 73, 87, 
88, 99, 113, 138, 180, 203. 

New England Historical Genealogi- 
cal Society of Boston, 147. 

Newton, Mass., 37, 138, 139, 142. 

Nichols house, 200. 

North Andover, Mass., 142. 

Noyes house, 113. 

Nuremberg, Germany, 212. 

Oak Knoll, 47, 60. 

"Old Christmas," 65. 

Old Tom, Indian chieftain, 12. 

Oliver, Henry K., house, 77. 

Osgood house, 109, 143, 168. 

Page, Colonel Jeremiah, 6. 

collection, 175, 180. 

house, 5, 6. 

Mistress, 6. 
Panels, handmade, 9. 
Parties at Salem, 167. 
Peabody, Captain Joseph, n, 46, 70. 

Elizabeth, 24. 

Joseph Augustus, 46. 

Sophia, 24. 
Peacock Inn, 4. 
Pearson, Ebenezer, 73. 
Perkins, Dr. George, 74. 
Perry, Mrs. Charles, 48. 
Pewter, 71, 162, 167, 168, 194, 210. 

American, 217. 

chargers, 210, 219. 

collections of, 219, 220. 

composition of, 210. 

development in France, 212. 

Dutch, 212. 

ecclesiastical, 213, 218. 

English, 213, 215, 217. 

flagon, 212. 

French, 216. 

German, 212. 

guilds, -2 1 5, 216. 

historic teapot, 220. 

household, 213, 214, 219. 

imitation, 218-219. 

in Rome, 211. 

in sixteenth century, 214. 

Japanese, 211, 221. 

lamps, 219, 220. 

marks on, 214-221. 

old, 211. 

origin of, 211, 213. 

plates, 210, 219, 221. 

rarest in existence, 221. 

salver, 212. 

Scotch, 212, 216. 

seals, 211. 

Spanish, 213. 

tankards, 210, 219. 

use discontinued, 216. 

value of, 217. 

where used, 213-214. 
Pewterer's Hall, London, 215. 
Philadelphia, Pa., 28, 51, 75, 208. 
Phipps, Governor, 90. 
Pickering, Alice, 72. 

house, 4, 5, 72, 76, 109. 

John, 4, 5, 72. 

Rev. Theophilus, 76. 

Timothy, 5, 109. 
Pierce, Franklin, 89. 

Governor, 89. 

house, 89, 115, 151. 

Mr., 25. 

Pierce- Jahonnot house, 25. 
Pierce-Nichols house, 139. 
Pilasters, fluted, 22. 
Pilgrim Hall, 93. 
Pillars, carved, 8. 

packed with salt, 14. 
Pitcher, Moll, 95. 

2 4 8 


Planche, Mons., 186, 188. 
Plants and flowers, 41, 42. 

azaleas, 52. 

camellias, 52. 

night-blooming cereus, 50. 

oxeye daisy, 44. 

peonies, 53. 

pitcher plant, 43. 

tulips, 53. 

Victoria Regia, 51. 

whiteweed, 44. 

wild, 42. 

woadwaxen, 44. 
Plymouth, Conn., 155. 

County, 217. 

Mass., 93. 

Poore, Major Benjamin Perley, 
Porcelain, Chinese, 179, 185. 

Japanese, 179. 

Lowestoft, 184. 
Porch, Andrews, 21. 

Assembly House, 24. 

circular, 13, 17, ai. 

construction of, 17. 

contour, 17. 

Dutch, 25. 

Gardiner, 21. 

hand-carved, 17, 18, 24. 

historic, 20, 24. 

inclosed, 23, 54. 

Lord, 22. 

Middle States, 9. 

New England, 17, 19, 28. 

oblong, 17. 

Philadelphia, 28. 

Pickman, 27. 

Pierce- Jahonnot, 25-26. 

Robinson, 14. 
. side, 14, 22, 23. 

Southern, 17, 19. 

square, 17. 

three-cornered, 17. 

types of, 19, 20. 

Portland Vase, 195. 

replica of, 192. 
Portsmouth, N. H., 9, 10, 90, 109, 


Poynton, Captain Thomas, 27. 
Putnam, General Israel, in. 

Quincy, Mass., 163. 

Redmond, John, 166. 
Reformation, the, 214. 
Revere, Paul, 225. 

Revolution, the, 3, 4, 7, 9, 10, 19, 
35, 69, 89, 94, 97, 113, 135, 143, 
226, 229, 233. 
Rhode Island, n. 
48. Ridout, George, 225. 
Robinson, Nathan, 14. 

house, 71. 

Rogers collection, 191. 
Rome, Italy, an. 
Roof, flat, 20. 

gambrel, 8, 9. 

pitched, 7. 

thatched, 2. 
Ropes, Caleb, 51. 

house, in. 
Rose (potter), 183. 

mark, 183. 
Rotterdam, china warehouse at, 


Rouseley, England, 4. 
Rowley, Mass., 141. 
Roxbury, Mass., 148. 

Salem, Mass., 4, 6, 7, n, 13, 18, 20, 
2 3 24, 25, 28, 36, 38, 46, 49, 60, 
69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 77, 80, 84, 93, 
95, 101, 102, 108, 109, 130, 132, 
138, 139, 141, 143, 150, 153, 162, 
164, 166, 168, 169, 189, 200, 202, 

203, 217, 220, 223, 232. 

Salem Club, 70. 


Saltonstall, Dr. Nathaniel, 76, 130. 

family, 141. 

Sir Richard, 130. 
Saltonstall-Howe house, 76. 
Sanders, Thomas, house, 70. 
Saugus, Mass., 72, 153. 
Saxony, 186, 196. 
Schwanhard, George, 198. 
Sconces, in Osgood house, 168. 

wall, 167. 

Scotland, 9, 212, 214. 
Sharp, William, 52. 
Shearer (designer), 114. 
Sheraton (designer), 92, 97, 100-102, 

112, 128, 146, 236. 
Shoemaker, Colonel George, 75. 
Sideboards, 113, 114. 

Chippendale, 114. 

Empire, 116. 

Hepplewhite, 114. 

inlaid, 115. 

Shearer, 114. 

Sheraton, 115. 
Silesia, 196. 
Silsbee house, 21. 
Silver, American, 223, 224. 

baronial, 223. 

beaker, 224. 

bowls, 225, 226, 232, 233, 234, 233. 

caddy, 229, 232. 

cake basket, 234. 

candle bowl, 232. 

candlesticks, 225. 

cans, 226. 

chased, 232, 233. 

communion service, 223. 

creamer, 234. 

cruet stand, 234. 

English, 224. 

engraved, 226, 232. 

hallmarks on, 224, 226, 230, 231. 

"hog" bowl, 235. 

of Paul Revere, 225. 

pitcher, 233. 

plates, 225. 

snuffbox, 232, 236. 

spice box, 236. 

spoons, 226-232. 

table utensils, 236. 

tankards, 232, 233. 

teapots, 226, 233, 234. 

tongs, 235. 

Simpson, Dr. James E., 52. 
Snuffer boats, 168. 
Snuffers, 168. 
Sofas, 97, 102. 

Adam, 103. 

Chippendale, 103. 

Cornucopia, 103. 

Darby and Joan, 103. 

Empire, 104. 

haircloth, 103. 

Louis XV, 103. 

Sheraton, 103. 
Spain, 135, 212, 213. 
Spofford, Harriet Prescott, 73. 
Spoons, "Apostle," 227, 228. 

"caddy," 228, 229, 231, 232. 

candle, 231. 

imitations, 230, 231. 

"rat-tail," 226. 

snuff, 231. 

teaspoons, 226. 
Sprague, Joseph, 6. 

house, 169. 

Staffordshire factories, 173, 175, 184. 
Staircase, 55, 59. 

balusters, 59. 

"Hey Bonnie Hall," 6x. 

"Oak Knoll," 60. 

spiral, 60. 

winder, 60. 
Stark, Charles Morris, 9. 

Major Caleb, 8. 

house, 8, 56, 115, I 3 IS*- 
State House, Boston, 15. 

[2 S 0] 


Stearns house, 6. 
Steigel, Baron, 204. 

house, 204. 

Stogumber Church, Somerset, 39. 
Stoves, " Cat Stone," 75. 

Franklin, 73, 74, 75, 76. 

hub grate, 75, 76, 77. 
Summer house, 44. 

on Peabody estate, 46-47. 
Susquehanna Valley, 75. 
Sutton Mills, Andover, 47. 
Swampscott, Mass., 152. 
Switzerland, 212. 

Tables, butterfly, 116. 

card, 118. 

chair, 117. 

dining, 117, 118. 

dish-top, 117. 

Dutch, 117, 118. 

Empire, 118. 

hundred-legged, 117. 

Kidney, 117. 

Pembroke, 118. 

pie-crust, 118. 

Pied, 118. 

pouch, 117. 

Sheraton, 117. 

table-top, 117. 

tea, 117. 

telescopic, 118. 

writing, 117. 
Terry, Eli, 150, 153, 154, 155. 

family, 150. 

Thomas, Seth, 155, 156. 
Tiles, 76, 180, 181. 
Tobies, Bennington, 177. 

Dutch, 175. 

French, 175. 

German, 175. 

Napoleon, 175, 176. 

old, 176. 

Staffordshire, 175. 

teapot, 177. 

young, 176. 
Topsfield, Mass., 55. 
Tracy, John, 49. 
Tragees (silversmith), 226. 
Trees, on Derby farm, 50. 

on Indian Hill, 48. 

on Peabody estate, 46. 
Turgot, Mons., 216. 

Van Dyck, Richard, 225. 
Vineyard and orchard, 42. 

Wall papers, "Adventures of Telem- 
achus," 87. 

"Bay of Naples," 88. 

block printing of, 80, 81. 

chariot race, 88. 

"Cupid and Psyche," 85. 

"Don Quixote," 84. 

English, 86, 87. 

English hunt, 84. 

foreign scenes, 86, 88. 

French, 86, 87. 

importation of, 82. 

landscape, 88, 89. 

made to order, 83, 89. 

origin of, 80. 

panels of, 81. 

Parisian views, 88. 

picture, 79, 81. 

roll, 81. 

Roman ruins, 89. 

squares of, 81. 

Venetian scenes, 88. 
Walls, painted, 81-83, 9 9* 

thick, 9. 

unplastered, 66. 
Ware, Isaac, quoted, 72. 
Ware, wooden, 213. 
Warner, Hon. Jonathan, 10, 169. 

house, 9, 56, 90, 109, 169. 
War of 1812, 143, 234. 



Warren, Russell, n. 
Washington, George, 10, 25, 88, 130, 

quoted, 25. 

Washingtonian period, 19. 
Waterbury, Conn., 155. 
Waters, Fitz, 202. 

collection, 93, 102, 108, 202. 

house, 38, 77, 202. 
Wayland, Mass., 35. 
Webster, Daniel, 23, in. 

Fletcher, 23. 
Wedgwood ware, 189. 

cream, 191. 

jasper, 191. 

Portland Vase, 192, 195. 

Queen's ware, 190. 
Wedgwood, Josiah, 189, 190, 191, 


Well room, the, 12. 
Wentworth, Governor Benning, 10, 

house, 10, 58. 

Sir John, 12. 
West, Mrs. William C., 189. 

collection, 189, 202. 
Westminster Abbey, 146. 
Westmoreland County, England, 


West Newbury, Mass., 12, 48. 
Wheelwright, William, 88. 

house, 88. 

Whieldon, Thomas, 189. 
Whipple, Major George, 87. 

house, 7, 23, 87. 
White, Captain Joseph, 22. 

Stephen, 23. 
White House, Washington, xi. 

Whittier, John Greenleaf, 47, 73. 

garden, 47. 

house, 37, 47, 160. 
Wilkesbarre, Pa., 75. 
William and Mary, 127. 
Willard, Aaron, 148. 

Benjamin, 148. 

Simon, 149. 
Windows, bull's-eye, 57. 

diamond paned, 13. 

dormer, 9. 

fanlight, 61. 

leaded, 5. 

Lutheran, 9. 
Windsor, England, 96. 
Winthrop, Governor, 42, 161. 
Wise, Rev. John, 76. 
Witchcraft days, 26. 
Woods used, apple, 101, 112. 

cherry, 108, in, 112, 148. 

forest trees, 106. 

hard, 59, 95. 

harewood, 129. 

holly, 114. 

mahogany, 59, 61, 99, zoo, 101, 
102, 106, 108, 112, 114, 115, 127. 

maple, 109, 114. 

oak, 108, 147. 

pine, 147. 

rosewood, 101, 102. 

satinwood, 100, 101, 114, 129. 

soft, 59, 95. 

sycamore, 129. 

tulip, 101, 114. 

walnut, 60, 108, in, 112, 129, 147. 

white, 2, 129. 

Yule log, 64. 



Northend, Mary Harrod 
707 Colonial homes and their 

N6 furnishings